Browsing Faculty of Environmental Sciences by Author "Adebayo, A. K."
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- ItemOpen AccessAcademic Professionals' And Developers' Perception of the Prefab Housing System in Lagos State: A comparative Study(Department of Architecture, University of Lagos, 2019-03-01) Adebayo, A. K.; Dixon-Ogbechi, B. N.Despite all government efforts to the contrary, there has been housing shortages in Nigeria. The prefab housing system, a modern construction method has been used successfully by some nations to overcome this problem. Yet, this system has not been extensively adopted in Nigeria. To encourage its adoption, there is a need to investigate key stakeholders’ perception of this modern construction method. This study adopted the survey research approach to comparatively investigate the perceptions of academic professionals and developers of the prefab housing system with the aim of identifying the key variables that can promote and hinder its adoption so as to formulate appropriate marketing strategies to promote its adoption in the Nigerian built environment. A sample of 250 respondents comprising of 150 academic professionals and 100 developers was selected using the multi-stage sampling approach. The data gathered was analysed using descriptive statistics on the SPSS version 21. The hypotheses were tested at the 5% level of significance using the Levene’s test for equality of variances and the independent samples t-test. It was discovered that built environment academic professionals and developers in Lagos state are equally familiar with and knowledgeable about the prefabricated housing system. And they both have similar views about the factors that could hinder/promote the sustainable application of prefabricated housing system in Lagos State. Hence, in formulating relevant policies to promote the adoption of the prefab system, policy makers need to focus more on strategies that will encourage academic professionals and practitioners to apply this modern construction method.
- ItemOpen AccessAdaptive Framework for Post-Occupancy Evaluation of Public Housing Projects in Nigeria(Faculty of Environmental Sciences, University of Lagos, 2010-11-01) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.; Igwe, J. M.Government intervention in housing development is lauded in many countries, but inappropriate perception of the end-users has made many of such schemes largely unsuccessful. In Nigeria, many researchers have argued that inadequate knowledge of the nature, scope and dimension of housing problems coupled with myopic concept of the people’s needs are responsible for public housing failures. Correct as these arguments may be, there is little evidence that they are based on a comparison between a clearly articulated theory about how the housing projects are supposed to work i.e., design intent, and the end-users. This situation further brings to the fore, the need to have a current and accurate understanding of the performance of the houses being provided. Once the initial design intent is established the techniques of post-occupancy evaluation can be employed to determine the extent to which it has been met. The paper shows that there are several approaches for understanding and conducting post-occupancy evaluation studies. This study examines three approaches that could be adapted and used to identify and prioritize questions regarding public-sector housing evaluation in Nigeria, after the housing project has been inhabited for some time.
- ItemOpen AccessArchitecture(Facta Universitatis, 2013-09-12) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.; Ogunbodede, B. F.; Igwe, J. M.Despite the modern and grandiose appearance of most architectural projects, closer examinations cast doubts on their sensitivity to the cultural and traditional past of the societies for which they were intended. Space for human habitation and interaction is one of the primary aspects of man's culture, and is basic to any architectural discussion. For a long time, architecture in most developing nations was shaped by colonial contexts and ideologies. The architects seemed more committed to revitalizing the civilization of other advanced countries within a new world setting. The focus of this paper is on the interplay between architecture and culture. The relationship between spaces created by architects and the local culture is examined within the context of place –the house, the community, the region, as well as the nation. The study identifies ties that bind groups together. It also explores the components that constitute spatial character. Physical and intangible aspects of materials in achieving environmental character are evaluated. Key questions regarding the professional and ideological inclination of architects are addressed. Finally, the impact of emerging global trends occasioned by contact of cultures is analyzed.
- ItemOpen AccessCreating Sustainable Safety in Urban Residential Neighbourhoods through Architectural Design(Department of Architecture, Ahmadu Bello University, 2009-09-01) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.; Igwe, J. M.Although the police and the criminal justice system are regarded as key contributors to the fight against crimes in urban residential neighbourhoods, recent thinking is that the complexity of the phenomena requires a wider approach. One of the newer approaches being propagated is sustainable urban neighbourhood safety through effective architectural planning and design. This approach argues that designers and developers should think of crime prevention as an integral part of the design processes that shape new developments. It has been projected that 10-15% of crimes have environmental design and management components. Increasingly it is being acknowledged that why, where and how crime and violence take place should be of interest to the process of architectural planning and design. This paper discusses how crime prevention considerations can be built into the processes that shape the physical structure and arrangement of group of buildings, landscapes, as well as other physical developments within urban residential neighbourhood spaces. The paper explores how design practices associated with different components of urban neighbourhood can facilitate or reduce the factors that contribute to crime or violence.
- ItemOpen AccessDoes Gating Enhance or Reduce Residents Perceived Risk of Victimisation?: Findings from a Study Of Festac Town Residential Neighbourhood, Lagos, Nigeria(Department of Architecture, University of Lagos, 2019-03-01) Okunola, O. O.; Adebayo, A. K.One of the spatial outcomes of recent urbanization is the rise in the popularity of privately governed residential, industrial and commercial spaces .Under globalization, economic and socio-cultural changes brought about different housing settlements which seem to enjoy a commonality of gating. Among several justifications for this new phenomenon is that these changes are brought about by high levels of crime and fear of crime of which perceived personal risk of victimisation is a potent indicator. The central question that has generated a lot of debate is whether this gating as an increasing by popular phenomenon does reduce residents’ perceived risk of victimisation. The study utilized survey method in an urban residential neighbourhood to gather relevant data. The result indicated that perceived personal risk of victimisation can be reduced by strengthening the negative attributes that means increasing police (security) patrol, using more security signage and strengthening access control mechanism while downplaying the positive contribution-gating system, gate house and observation systems. This paper clearly indicated that in spite of the best efforts at gating the perception of risk victimization is still very high.
- ItemOpen AccessDwelling Density Variability across Government-Built Multifamily Apartments in Lagos(Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia, 2013-08-15) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.This study examined the variability of dwelling density across different classifications of multifamily apartments built by Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) in Lagos, Nigeria. Six design prototypes used to build several multifamily apartments in four estates were purposively selected as case study. The focus was on comparing how the interior spaces in the six multifamily prototype apartments were occupied during habitation. Overall population of apartments studied was 7,764 representing the total number of apartments in the four purposively selected estates. A sample of 7.5% (582) was chosen using stratification and systematic random techniques. A survey research technique was adopted to obtain responses to pre-tested questionnaires regarding the demographic data of occupants. Data analysis was done by applying adult-equivalent number of occupants based on Canadian National Occupancy Standards (CNOS) and the Equivalized Crowding Index (ECI). The intensity of dwelling density during habitation across various apartment classifications was presented in two parts namely single measure and group measure. The results obtained using the group measure show that households containing three to five persons were the most dominant in all apartment types. The result also shows that there was no substantial disparity in dwelling density across different apartment classifications when analyzed using single measure approach. This finding was supported by the results of a chi-square test which found that, at 95% confidence level, apartment type had no significant effect on dwelling density in LSDPC’s multifamily apartments. The findings are important for policy issues that relate apartment types to household sizes and crowding. The results are also relevant for policies regarding provision of infrastructure and other complementary facilities in government-built estates to improve residents’ welfare and quality of life.
- ItemOpen AccessDwelling Space Deficits in Nigeria’s Large Cities: Evaluation of Mass Housing Units in Lagos(Queensland University of Technology, Australia, 2014-10-01) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.Concern for housing delivery in Lagos and other large towns in Nigeria continues to focus on increasing the overall housing stock. Yet, there is another form of crisis that relates to how the spaces in housing unit prototypes that constitute the current stock of mass housing in these rapidly growing cities were designed to be occupied or utilized? The aim of this study is to establish thresholds at which occupants of mass housing prototype apartments in Lagos megacity are likely to experience dwelling space deficits. Case study methodology was employed. Five purposively selected low-income prototype designs were analysed to determine the rated capacity or estimated intensity of occupancy, using three established standards. The outcome suggests that for two bedroom category, type 2 (two-bedroom) design located at Dolphin estate has higher capacity rating in terms of occupancy. Similarly, type 5 (three bedroom) design also at Dolphin has the highest rating among the three bedroom apartments studied. The research supports the use of these design types, or their variants to improve the spatial efficiency and habitability of future mass housing stock in Lagos.
- ItemOpen AccessEffect of Household head’s gender on crowding in Government-built multifamily apartments in Lagos(School of Environmental Technology, Federal University of Technology, Minna, 2017-12-01) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.The inclusion of gender perspectives is highlighted globally by planners, architects and policy makers in tackling the built-environment developmental issues. Living arrangements in multifamily apartments and exposure to housing stress are influenced by household demographic factors such as gender. Access to reliable data on household crowding which recognizes and understands gender-specific patterns is cherished by governments and policy makers across the globe. Exploring the gender differences in the experiences of crowding is one of the areas that has not attracted adequate research attention in multifamily apartments owned and operated by the Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) in Lagos, Nigeria. This study aimed to assess the differing degrees of crowding experience in households headed by men and households headed by women. A case study of four large housing estates belonging to LSDPC was employed. The study sample frame was 7,764 out of which a sample of 7.5% (582) was randomly selected using stratification and systematic techniques. A pre-test questionnaire was used to collect relevant gender disaggregated data from household heads. Descriptive statistical analyses were used to compare the crowding experiences faced by households headed by males and females in the study area. The results showed that in all the six apartment types investigated across four locations, the gender of household head had no significant effect on apartment crowding. It is therefore recommended that planning, design and policy inclination towards crowding in LSPDC’s multifamily apartments should be based on gender neutrality
- ItemOpen AccessEffect of Households’ Socio-Economic Condition on Crowding in Government-Built Apartments in Lagos, Nigeria(Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia, 2013-07-01) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.This study evaluated how occupants’ socio-economic status affect household crowding in multifamily walk-up apartments built by the government for low and medium income dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria. The focus was on Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) as a case study, using survey research design approach. Four large housing estates with a population of 7,764 dwelling units were purposively chosen from locations at Abesan, Iba, Ikoyi and Ebute-Metta. A sample of 7.5% (582) was selected, using systematic and stratification techniques. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to obtain responses from household heads pertaining to number of persons and demographic data for each housing unit. A return rate of 30.2% was recorded. Socio-economic grouping of households was derived using a monthly income estimate for the head of household. Households were grouped into low, medium and high income categories. Data analysis was done by applying adult-equivalent number of occupants to the Canadian National Occupancy Standards (CNOS) and the Equivalized Crowding Index (ECI). The results indicate a preponderance of gentrification, with attendant policy implications. The results also show that there is no significant difference in the degree of crowding among the different socio-economic classifications. This is inconsistent with the generally held understanding in urban housing studies that crowding rates are higher in low income households than in medium and high income households. The findings tend to suggest that LSDPC should adopt appropriate strategies to forestall the disappearance of low income households from its multifamily apartments.
- ItemOpen AccessFloor level characteristics and students’ perceived safety in university halls of residence(Advance Multidisciplinary Studies, 2017-11-04) Jobi, A.; Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.The design of the physical environment has been identified as one of the major predictors of safety from crime particularly in students’ halls of residence. Previous researches on student housing have not adequately addressed how the physical design features in the halls of residence affects the safety of the occupants. This study examines the floor level characteristics of universities’ halls of residence in relation to students’ perceived safety. A study of students’ halls of residence within the campus of University of Lagos was carried out using both observation checklist and questionnaires administered on 252 respondents living in 7 halls of residence. The study showed that the respondents living on the higher floor levels felt safer because they encounter fewer strangers. Also the result indicated that students’ perceived safety correlated negatively with the corridor length. The study therefore identified floor height and corridor length as predictors of perception of safety that should be considered in future design of universities’ halls of residence.
- ItemOpen AccessGender and Household Headship in Public Housing Multifamily Apartments in Lagos(Department of Architecture, 2016-07-01) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.This research is concerned with headship differentials by gender in public housing multifamily apartments using Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC) as a case study. The study was a snapshot survey aimed at determining the gender parity or disparity of household heads among current occupants of LSDPC’s multifamily apartments in Lagos. Four large housing estates were purposively selected out of twelve estates containing multifamily apartments with a population of 17,679 and a sample frame of 7,764 apartments. A sample of 582 units was chosen using stratified and systematic techniques. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical tools. The study revealed that women-headed households constitute less than 20% of the sampled households in LSDPC’s multifamily apartments. This tends to suggest that the female gender faces severe exclusions in access to LSDPC’s apartments, possibly due to ideological neglect of gender mainstreaming in the planning, design and allocation of the agency’s multifamily housing delivery process. Therefore, gender dynamics should be a significant policy issue in the accessing of LSDPC’s multifamily apartments in Lagos.
- ItemOpen AccessGlobal Slum Upgrading Practices: Identifying the Contemporary Challenges(Centre of Construction managment and Leadership Development, 2015-10-01) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.Over the years, human settlement experts have utilized a number of intervention strategies for integrating slums and informal neighbourhoods into their larger urban context. Yet these practices are continually trailed by challenges and reactions from built-environment professionals and other stakeholders. It is therefore imperative that the quest for an acceptable approach to slum intervention is yet to abate. A literature review methodology was adopted to identify and appraise the various intervention models that were practiced in some developing nations. Although slum upgrading option was adjudged to be the current global best practice, it is still besieged by several imperfections. Some weaknesses and challenges that are applicable to developing countries, particularly Nigeria were identified in this study. The paper suggests policy measures for mitigating these challenges.
- ItemOpen AccessHouseholds’ ethnic background and crowding in public housing multifamily apartments in Lagos(Abubakar Tafawa Balewa University, Bauchi, 2016-12-01) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.Crowded housing is one of the housing stresses that bother policy makers and housing authorities in Lagos, Nigeria. At the core of the argument is the anthropology of proper and acceptable sleeping arrangements, particularly as it applies to households' ethnic and cultural groups. The study examined the crowding levels among persons of different ethnic and cultural origins occupying Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC)'s apartments. Four housing estates were purposively selected among LSDPC's multifamily categories, comprising 7,764 apartments. A sample of 7.5% was chosen using stratification and systematic random techniques. A pretested questionnaire instrument was used to collect the relevant demographic data of occupants. The ethnic group of the household head was taken as a measure of the ethnicity and cultural background of the household. Apartment occupants were grouped into three: households that consist of 1-2 occupants; households that consist of 3-5 occupants; and households that consist of 6 or more occupants. Non-parametric statistical techniques were applied to analyse and compare data obtained from questionnaire. The result shows that households consisting of 3-5 occupants were dominant and no one ethnic group consistently maintained higher or lower crowding level across apartments. Hence, household head's ethnicity had no significant effect on apartment crowding. This result contrasts with findings from earlier researches in some countries which claim that household crowding varies considerably according to ethnic groups. It recommends that ethnic groups should be deliberately mixed to achieve ethnic and social integration.
- ItemOpen AccessImproving Housing Durability in Deprived Settlements of Lagos Megacity through Ingenuous Use of Sustainable Indigenous Materials(Universiti Tun Hussein Onn, Malaysia, 2010-09-01) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.The challenge of housing delivery in many developing nations is exacerbated by the predominance of deprived settlements, according to recent publications of the United Nations Settlement Programme (UN-Habitat). In Nigeria, 30% of its urban population is currently living in Lagos megacity. The Lagos megacity region plays host to more than 200 officially recognized slum settlements. Going by the United Nations’ adopted definition, these settlements harbour households that suffer from lack of access to one or more housing deprivation measures such as durable housing, improved water, improved sanitation, sufficient living space and security of tenure. Nine major slum communities in this fast-growing megacity are presently benefiting from a massive World Bank assisted seven-year upgrading exercise that commenced in 2006. However, there is perplexity because emphasis is ostensibly on infrastructure, particularly roads. There is apparent neglect of the housing durability element. This paper argues that the approach adopted in this exercise is not exhaustive, and could in fact, portend danger for the future. The study discusses how the durability component of housing deprivation can be addressed through actions and policies that encourage ingenuous use of indigenous building materials.
- ItemOpen AccessInter-ethnic mix and housing unit allocation in the Lagos State Development and Property Corporation Estates(Department of Urban and Regional Planning, University of Lagos, 2014-09-01) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.Although the Lagos State Development and Property Corporation (LSDPC)’s housing estates are characterized by mixed ethnicity, there is no strategic pursuit of appropriate ethnic-mixing as a policy instrument to integrate the multi-ethnic population of Lagos spatially. This study appraises the inter-ethnic mix in LSDPC’s estates as a starting point in enunciating policies that can be used to ensure ethnic mixing in Lagos, thereby reducing ethnic enclaves, divisiveness, tribalism and communal agitation. Seven estates in diverse locations at Abesan, Amuwo-Odofin, Dolphin-Ikoyi, Ebute-Metta, Iba, Ijaiye and Iponri; all containing 12,433 apartments were purposively selected. These constitute the frame from which a 7.5% (867) sample was chosen. Systematic random technique and a pre-test questionnaire instrument were used. Data were analysed using non-parametric descriptive statistical tools results show that LSDPC estates are dominated by fifteen ethnic groups, contrary to speculations that Lagos contains over 250 ethnic groups. Furthermore, Yorubas are dominant in five locations (Abesan, Dolphin-Ikoyi, Amuwo-Odofin, Iponri and Agege); while Igbos are dominant in Iba and Ebute-Metta. Claims that public housing estates in Lagos contain a mix of ethnic nationalities are partly supported. However, the mix is highly skewed in favour of Yoruba (58.8%), Igbo (28.8%) and Edo (6.6%).
- ItemOpen AccessNigerian National Building Code as it Relates to Material Specification and Quality Control(Federal University of Technology, Akure, 2010-09-01) Iweka, A. C.; Falade, F. A.; Adebayo, A. K.Buildings are generally assessed using the criteria of firmness, utility and beauty, to determine the degree to which they are fit for purpose. The Nigerian National Building Code provides broad guides on general specifications and quality control, to ensure that materials used to execute building projects meet minimum standards. This paper examines the different materials captured in the Code, in terms of their special characteristics and in-depth aspects of quality, for best practice. The study addresses certain identified shortcomings in the relevant parts of the Code that deal with material specification and quality control.
- ItemOpen AccessOptimizing the Sustainability of Tourism Infrastructure in Nigeria through Design for Deconstruction Framework(Scientific and Academic Publishing, 2014-03-01) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.Tourism infrastructure is generally regarded as the physical element that is created or made to cater for visitors. The way in which design and construction of tourism infrastructure, particularly buildings are currently carried out in Nigeria tends to be haphazard, wasteful and largely unscientific. One major observation is that most tourism infrastructure in the country are not designed for ease of disassembly, thereby creating sustainability problems for designers and other stakeholders. The negative environmental impacts of wastages associated with such design and construction practices are substantial and this could exacerbate, considering the high rate of urbanization and the present quest to be among the twenty most industrialized nations in the World by 2020. The implication of the 2020 agenda is that the tourism industry in Nigeria would witness unprecedented construction activities. Considering the present experience of the industrialized countries, the current construction activities inherent in tourism infrastructure are associated with huge amount of waste. Experiences of most industrialized nations seem to suggest that such wastes can be avoided or reduced by increasing the rates of reuse and recycling of materials and components. As the economy of Nigeria continues to expand, there is growing need to explore the problems of sustainability associated with design and construction of tourism infrastructure. The methodology for this research is essentially a literature review that explores design for deconstruction as a paradigm for developing sustainable tourism infrastructure in Nigeria. The study reveals that re-use of existing tourism infrastructure through mass recycling of associated wastes could introduce elements of sustainability into the sector. It concludes that application of design for deconstruction framework will heighten awareness for elements of sustainability that a tourism infrastructure project needs to objectify in 21st Century Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessPositioning African Cities for Globalization: The Challenge of Slum Upgrading(International Institute for research and advanced studies, University of Port Harcourt, 2009-12-01) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.; Igwe, J. M.Although the phenomenon of globalization affects every facet of human life, a disproportionate amount of existing literature on this subject is skewed in favour of the Western world. There are many unanswered questions about how to be a global city. However, the current understanding is that they serve as nodes and hubs of international finance, goods, services, communication, information, politics, culture, etc. The question concerning whether global cities exist in Africa remains contentious. Most scholars, however, tend to agree that Africa stands out as the continent with the fewest number of global cities in the world today. Notwithstanding this unenviable profile, there are prospects that African cities could be positioned to take part in the global city network process. A starting point is to reconcile the contradiction in the global city theory that allows modernized territories to exist in juxtaposition with precarious slums and informal settlements. These two mutually dependent spheres of the city are interlinked with the process of globalization. This paper argues that the growth of slums throughout the world, and its predominance in Africa is a salient feature of globalization. The study postulates that for African cities in the era of globalization, one of the most pressing challenges is how the cities should deal with the proliferation of slums, and informal settlements. The paper finally discusses adequate and suitable counter-measures that could prevent the perpetuation of polarized dual cities of social conflicts.
- ItemOpen AccessRe-thinking Shelter Strategies in Lagos, Nigeria: A Panacea for Attaining a Global City Status(Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra, Malaysia, 2013-10-12) Iweka, A. C.; Adebayo, A. K.; Igwe, J. M.Although Lagos, Nigeria is classified among the largest cities in the world, there are uncertainties about whether its quest to become a global city can materialize if its growth continues to be inundated by problems of shelter deprivation. The current population estimate of Lagos is over 17.0 million. It is known that 60-70% of this figure are scattered among the 200 officially recognized slum settlements in the city. The implication is that the quality of life of many urban dwellers that constitute the human resource base of the city will be compromised if prompt measures are not taken. This paper hypothesizes that one sure way for Lagos to climb the global urban hierarchy is for it to initiate urban changes in the form of adopting a real estate strategy that focuses on counter-measures against the prevalence of shelter deprivation. The study examines the experiences of cities in countries that share similar historical antecedents with Lagos. Different perspectives of the real estate strategy employed by different countries in their attempt to attract foreign investments are discussed. The paper concludes by emphasizing the dimensions of real estate strategy that could be applicable in the Lagos context
- ItemOpen AccessSustainable Infrastructure Upgrade in Slum Settlements of Lagos, Nigeria(Kaunas University of Technology, Lithuania, 2014-06-01) Adebayo, A. K.; Iweka, A. C.Global attention was drawn to the severe and pervasive effects of urban slums when the United Nations included it in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a few years ago. Urban slums are areas or neighbourhoods that suffer infrastructure deprivation. Infrastructure refers to the physical framework of facilities through which goods and services are delivered to neighbourhood dwellers by the government. A fundamental issue in slum upgrading projects is the provision of adequate infrastructure. In a developing nation like Nigeria, there is a need to examine urban slum upgrading in a wider conceptual and technical context that will be more sustainable than what currently exists in large cities like Lagos. Nigerian architects and other professionals in the built-environment have been trying to grasp key concepts required to comprehend the phenomenon of slum upgrading and therefore be able to address it by sustainable design. The wider conceptual and technical perspectives constitute the main problem addressed in this study. The techniques employed include the review of the literature and review of interviews on slums and slum upgrading in some parts the globe. Observation technique and visits to nine large slum settlements in Lagos were also employed to validate the general information obtained from the literature. This paper discusses a wide range of urban slum characteristics and slum upgrading issues that are applicable to the study area. The paper examines specific aspects where the architect can contribute substantially to infrastructural upgrading of the built-form and spaces in Lagos’ slums.