Browsing Child Dental Health- Scholarly Publications by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessA cephalometric study of anteroposterior skeletal jaw relationship in Nigerian Hausa-Fulani children(West African journal of Medicine, 2004) Utomi, I.LObjective: To determine the antero-posterior skeletal jaw relationship in Nigerian Hausa-Fulani children Setting: This study was carried out in 1998 at the Maxillo-facial Unit of the Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Kaduna, Nigeria. Materials and methods: 100 subjects aged 11-13years of Hausa-Fulani ancestry with no previous history of orthodontic treatmentwere selected for the study. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were traced and anolyzed to produce values for SNA, SNB and ANB. Results: The mean SNA was 82.4⁰, mean SNB 80.3⁰, and mean ANB 2.1⁰. The normal range of ANB values was 0.5-4⁰. Conclusion: The values obtained differ from those of other population groups and should be used as guidelines in the orthodontic treatment of the group studied.
- ItemOpen AccessAttitudes of Nigerian dentists towards Hepatitis B vaccination and use of barrier techniques.(West African Journal of Medicine, 2005) Utomi, I.L.Objective: Hepatitis B virus constitutes a significant threatb to the health of the dental professional. Infection with hepatitis B virus can however be prevented through hepatitis B vaccination and use of barrier techniques. This study therefore assesses the attitudes of Nigerian dentists towards Hepatitis B vaccination and use of barrier techniques. Materials and Method: A questionnaire survey of 160 dental practitioners in Lagos, Ife and Benin. Result: 48.1% had complete vaccination, 3.1% incomplete vaccination and 48.8% no vaccination. 97.5% reported routine use of glovesand 70.6% reported routine use of masks. 61.3% and 23.1% reported routine use of protective gowns and eyewear respectively. Conclusion: There is need to improve the rate of vaccination among Nigerian dentists and to encourage consistent use of barrier techniques.
- ItemOpen AccessCharacteristics and Study Motivation of Clinical Dental Students in Nigerian Universities(2006) Orenuga, O.O; da Costa, O.OA cross-sectional study of a cohort of 197 clinical dental students in the four accredited dental schools in Nigeria was conducted to determine the sociodemographic characteristics of these dental students and their motives for the choice of dentistry. The results indicate that the number of female dental students in Nigeria is increasing, which reflects a trend well established in virtually all other nations. The vast majority of Nigerian dental students (97 percent) qualified for school based on their performance on the University Matriculation Examination. About one-third, 32.5 percent, indicated that dentistry was their first choice for a career. This choice was greatly influenced by family in 50 percent of this group of students. There were several factors that strongly influenced career choice among students who indicated that dentistry was their first choice: interest, prestige, good employment opportunity abroad, and regular work hours. The need to go into a prestigious and financially lucrative profession similar to medicine were the commonest reasons identified by the group of students for whom dentistry was not the first career choice. The motives for choosing dentistry as a career in this group of students seem to relate to an image of dentistry as a vehicle for the achievement of personal goals. It is recommended that high school students be encouraged to see dentistry first hand. This is because in countries such as Nigeria it is not unusual for a potential dental student to have never visited the dentisT
- ItemOpen AccessChallenges and motivating factors of treatment among orthodontic patients(African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2007) Utomi, I.LThe purpose of this study was to determine the challenges and motivating factors of treatment among orthodontic patients in Lagos, Nigeria. A questionnaire survey of 75 patients aged 10-28 years undergoing orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi-square test. About 82% of all the patients were teased about their appliance. Seventy -three percent of the subjects had difficulty with eating, 65.8% with oral hygiene and 37% with speech. Pain from the teeth was experienced by 69.9% of patients. Sixty-four per cent of the patients had a desire to discontinue treatment. Reasons for wanting to discontinue treatment included restriction to soft diet (37.5%), pain (20.8%), appearance (16.7%), missing school (12.5%), and effects on social life (12.5%). Restriction to soft diet and pain were reported as the worst aspects of treatment by 32% and 20% of the participants respectively. The most important motivating factors for continuing treatment were anticipated improvement in dental appearance (44%), and the determination to complete treatment (30.7%). The challenges of treatment among Nigerian orthodontic patients were considerable with no significant gender differences. Improving dental appearance and determination to continue treatment are major motivators for patients to continue orthodontic treatment. There is need for professional counselling of the Nigerian orthodontic patient.
- ItemOpen AccessInformed consent in orthodontics: experiences of Nigerian patients(Greek Orthodontic Society, 2007) Onyeaso, C.O.; Utomi, I.L.AIM: The adequacy of information comprehension by medical and dental patients during informed consent process has been a source of concern to health care providers globally. The objective of this study was to evaluate Nigerian orthodontic patients’ experiences with informed consent. DESIGN: Questionnaire-based, cross-sectional and prospective study. SETTING: Child Oral Health Department, University College Hospital, Ibadan and the Child Dental Health Department, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information was gathered from the orthodontic patients receiving treatment at the two referral orthodontic centers in Nigeria concerning their experiences about several aspects of informed consent in orthodontics. In all, 103 patients – 77 (74.8%) females and 26 (25.2) males participated in the study. Their ages ranged from 7 to 40 years (mean age: 15.89 ± 8.4). Descriptive statistics and chi-square statistic were applied in analyzing the data. RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients (57.3%) claimed they received verbal explanations from their orthodontists while 38 (36.9%) claimed they had written and verbal explanations. Although 40 (38.8%) accepted being informed of the possible risks associated with orthodontic treatment, only 27 (26.3%) were able to recall some. Twenty-six (25.2%) could not indicate any of their responsibilities during the treatment, 68 (66%) agreed that their orthodontists informed them of the possible causes of their mal-occlusions, 24 (23.3%) agreed that they were informed of the possible treatment alternatives and87 (84.5%) accepted being told of the possible treatment duration. Seventy-nine (76.7%) claimed they asked questions concerning the treatment during the decision-making process. Generally, 55(53.4%) were satisfied with the information they received and 90 (87.3%) described the communication between them and their orthodontists as satisfactory / very satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: Although a reasonable proportion of the patients indicated satisfaction with the communication between them and their orthodontists, many could not recall the risks associated with orthodontic treatment. Due to the possible medico-legal implications, patients should be educated more on the risks associated with orthodontic treatment.
- ItemOpen AccessMalocclusion and Orthodontic treatment need of mentally handicapped children in Lagos, Nigeria.(The Pesquisa Brasileira em Odontopediatria e Clínica Integrada / Brazilian Research in Paediatric Dentistry and Integrated Clinic (PBOCI), 2009) Utomi, I.L.; Onyeaso, C.O.Objective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion andorthodontic treatment need in mentally handicapped children in Lagos, Nigeria using the DAI; and to assess whether the observed malocclusion is affected by age and sex. Method: The study population consisted of 102 non-Down syndrome mentally handicapped children between 6-18 years of age from 5 special schools/centres for people with special needs in Lagos. A pre-structured questionnaire was used to record the findings and socio-demographic information. The handicapped children were examined in their respective schools under natural light, using the Dental aesthetic Index (DAI) assessments. The independent student’s t-test was used for the comparison of mean DAI score between any two groups. The Bonferroni correction was applied to minimize the likelihood of type one error while undertaking multiple t-tests. Results: There were no statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the mean DAI scores between gender and among the age groups. Severe malocclusion with treatment ‘highly desirable’ was found in 18%. Handicapping malocclusion where treatment was‘mandatory’ was observed in 19%. One or more missing teeth were observed in 8.8%, while incisal crowding was seen in 28.4% and spacing in 58.8%. Irregularities in the maxillary and mandibular anterior segments were noted in 38.2% and 47.1%, respectively.Open bite was seen in about 25.5% of the study population. Class1 molar relationship was found in 68.6% and 31.4% presented with half cusp and full cusp relationship. Conclusion: A large proportion of the population had very severe malocclusion where treatment is considered mandatory. The mentally disabled had higher frequencies of all the malocclusion traits than normal Nigerian children with the exception of crowding.
- ItemOpen AccessAnteroposterior, vertical and space malocclusions in adolescents with special needs in Lagos, Nigeria(Odontostomatologie Tropicale, 2011) Utomi, IL; Onyeaso, COObjective: To determine the prevalence of malocclusion in adolescents with special needs and to compare the results with those of other authors. Methods: The study sample consisted of 230 adolescents with special needs aged 12-17 years randomly selected from 5 special school/ centres in Lagos. Occlusal anteroposterior relationships were assessed based on Angle classification. Results: Normal occlusion was seen in 11.7%, Angle’s Class I malocclusion in 77.4%, Class II malocclusion in 8.3% and Class III malocclusion in 2.6%. Over 63% had normal overbites, and 6.5% and 12.5% had increased and reduced values, respectively. Overjet relationship was normal in 50%, increased in 25.7% and reduced in 6.5%. Crowding was observed in 29% of the subjects and midline diastema in 27%. Males had a significantly higher prevalence of midline diastema than females (p< 0.05). The intellectually impaired had significantly higher frequency of Class II division 1 malocclusion and anterior openbite when compared with the other disabled groups. Conclusion: Class I malocclusion is the most prevalent occlusal pattern among adolescents with special needs. Statistically significant differences in occlusal pattern were observed between the disabled groups.
- ItemOpen AccessA cephalometric assessment of the nasolabial angle of an adult Nigerian population(Nigerian Dental Journal, 2011) Isiekwe, G.I; daCosta, O.O; Isiekwe, M.CObjective: One of the most important components of orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning is an evaluation of the patient's soft tissue profile. An assessment of the nasolabial angle is a vital component of this evaluation. The purpose of this study was to establish norms for the nasolabial angle of an adult Nigerian population; compare the male and female values and to compare the values obtained for Nigerians with those reported for other populations. Method: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of one hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18-25years were taken. Selected subjects were of Nigerian ancestry with normal occlusion. The radiographs were manual ly t raced and the nasolabial angle of each subject measured. 0 0 Result: A mean value of 84.35 +13.71 was computed for the entire sample. No statistically significant difference was observed between the male and female values (p>0.05), although 0 0 the males recorded a lower nasolabial angle (83.70 ) than the females (85.28 ).The nasolabial angle recorded in this study was similar to that reported for South African blacks, but much lower than that reported for Caucasian populations. 0 Conclusion: The mean nasolabial angle of 84.35 + 13.71 was observed in the Nigerian population studied. Sexual differences were not observed; however, the values observed in this study differ from that reported for Caucasians and other racial groups.
- ItemOpen AccessDouble teeth in the primary dentition: case report from a Nigerian tertiary hospital.(Nigerian Dental Association, 2011) Olatosi, O.O.; Sote, E.O.The term double tooth is used to describe the developmental dental abnormalities called gemination and fusion. Gemination is an attempted, incomplete division of a single tooth germ during the proliferation stage of odontogenesis, while fusion is the union of two or more independently developing teeth. Although the prevalence of primary double teeth is low, double teeth are of clinical interests because of the associated clinical problems. The clinical problems associated with the condition in the primary dentition are often downplayed for various reasons in spite of their importance. Primary double teeth ought to be carefully investigated so that these clinical problems which may affect the permanent dentition can be effectively managed. Perhaps primary double teeth have not received adequate documentation in our environment because of the low prevalence. This presents four primary double teeth in three patients. One of the cases presented occurred bilaterally, a relatively uncommon phenomena. The associated clinical problems are illustrated in the cases and the management discussed. Although primary double teeth are asymptomatic and in some cases may not interfere with function, they do have associated clinical problems. Early diagnosis and regular clinical and radiographic observations are necessary for effective management and appropriate treatment of the anomaly.
- ItemOpen AccessA cephalometric investigation of horizontal lip position in adult Nigerians(SAGE Publications, 2012) Isiekwe, G.I; daCosta, O.O; Isiekwe, C.MObjectives: The aims of this study were to (1) identify soft tissue cephalometric norms for horizontal lip position in an adult Nigerian population; (2) compare values for Nigerian males and females; and (3) compare Nigerian norms with established norms for Caucasians and other populations. Design: A cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental Clinic, Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants: One hundred students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18– 25 years, of Nigerian ancestry, with a normal class I occlusion and no facial asymmetry. Methodology: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of the subjects were taken in natural head position. Radiographs were manually traced and 11 soft tissue cephalometric parameters measured. These were derived from the Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone, Merrifield and Holdaway soft tissue analyses. Male and female values were compared using Student’s t-test with a level of significance at P,0.05. Results: Statistically significant differences were observed between Nigerian males and females in eight of the variables studied, with males having more protrusive upper and lower lips than the females. Variables, which did not vary by sex, were soft tissue facial angle, nose prominence and soft tissue chin thickness. In addition, Nigerian norms were higher than norms reported by Steiner, Ricketts, Burstone and Holdaway for Caucasian populations, while the Z-angle was lower than the norm established by Merrifield. Conclusions: Gender-specific soft tissue norms for horizontal lip position should be used for orthodontic treatment planning in Nigerian subjects. Nigerians have more protrusive upper and lower lips compared to Caucasians.
- ItemOpen AccessLip dimensions of an Adult Nigerian population with normal occlusion(Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 2012) Isiekwe, G.I; daCosta, O.O; Isiekwe, M.CIntroduction: The soft tissue paradigm is placing greater emphasis on the importance of the soft tissue profile to orthodontic treatment planning. The purpose of this study was to determine the lip dimensions of a Nigerian adult population; compare the male and female values and to compare the values obtained for Nigerians with those reported for other population. Methodology: Lateral cephalometric radiographs of 100 students (44 males and 56 females) of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, aged 18 to 25 years were taken. Selected subjects were of Nigerian ancestry with normal occlusion and a harmonious facial appearance. The radiographs were manually traced and the upper and lower lip length and thickness of each subject was measured. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS, while the male and female values were compared using student’s t-tests. Results: Mean values for the lip dimensions were computed for the entire sample. Marked sexual dimorphism was observed with the males having thicker and longer upper and lower lips than the females. The Nigerian sample also had a longer upper lip and a thicker and shorter lower lip than that reported for Caucasians. However, both population had a similar upper lip thickness. Conclusion: Cephalometric norms were developed for the lip dimensions of a Nigerian population. Marked sexual dimorphism was observed in the Nigerian population studied with the males having longer and thicker lips than the females. The lip dimensions of the Nigerian population studied differed from that reported for Caucasians and other racial groups. Clinical significance: The lip dimensions established in this study would aid in orthodontic and orthognathic surgery treatment planning for Nigerians. Furthermore, due to the marked sexual dimorphism observed in the Nigerian population studied, gender specific and not generalized norms should be used.
- ItemOpen AccessCauses and pattern of tooth loss in children and adolescents in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital.(Lagos University Medical Society, 2012-01-01) Olatosi, O.O.; Sote, E.O.Background: Tooth loss diminishes the quality of life and is also related to poorer general health. Premature tooth loss in children can have devastating effects such as compromised aesthetics and function, mesial and distal drifts of adjacent teeth leading to crowding and impaction of the permanent successors and other forms of malocclusion. Objective: To assess the causes and pattern of tooth loss in children and adolescents at the Paedodontic Clinic of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at the Paedodontic Unit of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos using clinical records over a period of time from January 2008 to April 2010. Information obtained included age, gender, missing and extracted teeth, and reasons for extraction/tooth loss. Exfoliated primary teeth and congenitally missing teeth were excluded. Data was analysed using Epi info 2007 statistical software. Chi-square test was used to compare proportions of tooth loss among age groups. The level of significance was set at P<0.05 Results: A total of 493 patients aged 1-16 years had lost one or more teeth due to various reasons. There were 244(49.5%) males and 249 (50.5%) females. Majority of the subjects lost their teeth due to caries and its sequelae (64.3%) compared to trauma (10.8%) and orthodontic reasons (23.5%). Seven (1.4%) lost their teeth due to failure of previous treatment such as pulp therapy. Conclusion: Extraction largely due to caries and its sequelae was responsible for most of the tooth loss among the study population. There is the need for intensified oral health education and awareness programmes in the populace with emphasis on prevention of dental caries and early presentation for dental treatment in order to avert premature tooth loss in children and adolescents
- ItemOpen AccessKnowledge and attitude of some Nigerian School teachers on the emergency management of Avulsed permanent incisor(Journal of West African Colege of Surgeons, 2013) Olatosi, O.O; Iwuala, S.O; Isiekwe, G.I; Oredugba, F.A; Adenaike, A.S; Oluwo, A.OAim & Objectives: To assess the knowledge and attitude of primary and secondary (Basic educational) school teachers on the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors. Setting: Twenty public and private basic educational schools were randomly selected from Lagos State. Subjects & Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study. A 23 item self administered questionnaire was distributed to teachers to determine their knowledge and attitude on the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors. Data was analysed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), Version 21.0. The responses obtained were tabulated and expressed as frequency distributions and then computed in percentages. Chi-square was used to test the association between knowledge of the schools teachers regarding the emergency management of avulsed permanent incisors and their socio-demographic variables. Multivariate analysis was used to adjust for confounding variables. The level of significance was set at P ≤0.05. Results: A total of 320 teachers answered the questionnaires. Most of the teachers were female (63.1%). Only (30.9%) had received first aid training which included emergency management of dental trauma. Forty- two percent (134) didn't know that an avulsed permanent tooth could be replanted. Twenty teachers (44.4%) would clean an avulsed tooth with toothbrush and toothpaste. A greater proportion of the respondents 130 (40.6%) would transport an avulsed tooth using a clean white handkerchief. The overall knowledge of the school teachers was poor (84%).There was a statistically significant association between the knowledge of the school teachers and the inclusion of emergency management of dental trauma in the first aid training of the teachers P=0.05. Predictors of teachers' level of knowledge of emergency management of avulsed teeth were receipt of advise on management of traumatic dental injuries (OR= 2.5, CI=1.19-4.28) and type of school (OR=0.93, CI=0.206-0.750). Conclusion: The school teachers had insufficient knowledge about the emergency management of avulsed permanent teeth. School oral health campaigns with regards to emergency management of avulsed teeth will help improve teachers' knowledge and modify their behaviour. Key words: Permanent tooth avulsion, School teachers, Knowledge and attitude, Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessRelevance of routine blood pressure assessment in adult patients at a dental clinic in a tertiary institution in Lagos, Nigeria(Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice, 2013) Umeizudike, K.A; Ayanbadejo, P.O; Umeizudike, T.I; Isiekwe, G.I; Savage, K.OAim: To determine the relevance of routine blood pressure (BP) measurement in patients attending the dental clinic. Materials and methods: This was a retrospective survey of patients who attended the dental clinic in the Preventive Dentistry Department of a tertiary Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria over an eighteen month period. Data retrieved from the patient’s hospital records included age, sex, BP and history of hypertension. Data was analyzed using Epi info 2011 package. p-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 1910 patients’ records were assessed. Females represented 53.4% (n = 1020) of the study population. The mean age was 37.1 ± 15.0 years (range 18-88 years). The prevalence of hypertension was 39.9% (n = 763). Hypertension was stage 1 in 25.5%, stage 2 in 9.8% and severe in 4.6% of the dental patients. Past medical history of hypertension was obtained for 952 patients (49.8%). Of the 763 patients with high blood pressure, 14.8% had a known history of hypertension, while 42.1% were previously undiagnosed (p < 0.0001). Systolic and diastolic BP increased with increasing age (p < 0.05) and was significantly higher in males than females (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The high prevalence of hypertension noted among the study population with its potential consequence during dental procedures makes the measurement of blood pressure a valuable assessment in a dental clinic. Clinical significance: The high prevalence of hypertension particularly the previously undiagnosed cases among the dental patients highlights the relevance of routine blood pressure assessment prior to dental procedures in contemporary dental practice, so as to minimize the potential complications that could occur.
- ItemOpen AccessPain and discomfort associated with orthodontic separator placement in patients attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital(2013) Utomi, I.L; Odukoya, O.OObjective: To determine the perception of pain and discomfort over time after orthodontic separator placement in patients attending the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Method: Sixty four patients scheduled for treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances completed questionnaires before insertion of separators and after placement at 4 hours, 24 hours and 7 days. The level of pain and discomfort during these time periods was assessed by a visual analogue scale. Results: There was a significant increase in the level of pain/discomfort 4 hours and 24 hours after placement of the separators for all the activities. The level of pain/discomfort peaked at 4 hours but did not return to baseline levels after 7 days. Patients more than 16 years old reported significantly more pain/discomfort over time than those 16 years and under. No significant difference in pain/discomfort was found between the sexes. Conclusion: Patients experience pain/discomfort following placement of orthodontic separators. Pretreatment counselling and analgesics are recommended.
- ItemOpen AccessEmerging trends in dental specialty choice in Nigeria(International Dental Journal, 2013) Nwhator, S.O; Olatosi, O.O; Ashiwaju, M.O; Isiekwe, G.IAsymmetry in the distribution of dental specialists in Nigeria has the potential to negatively affect dental education at all levels. There is a dearth in Nigerian studies on the trends of influencing factors on the choice of dental specialty in Nigeria. Past efforts have not resulted in policy change thus necessitating the current study. One hundred and twelve (51 male, 61 female) Nigerian dental graduates aged 23–55 years with a mean age of 35.21 8.21 years completed selfadministered questionnaires to assess the impact of 16 influencing factors on their choice of dental specialty. The graduation period of respondents, which ranged between 0 and 30 years was recoded into three decades and cross-tabulated against 16 influencing factors to assess their relative impact on specialty choice. Diagnostic challenge, predictable work hours and patient type appeared to have maintained a consistent popularity while affluence and income, although less popular influences three decades ago are becoming increasingly relevant while length of programme, prestige and level of crowding exerted less influence on choice of specialty than other factors. The potential influence of incentives such as career counselling and grants for overseas training to encourage enrolment in less popular programmes was assessed based on recommendations from previous studies. However, these measures appeared to be unpopular among Nigerian dental graduates. Diagnostic challenges and predictable work hours remain popular as influencing factors on choice of dental specialty among Nigerian dental graduates. Affluence and income, although previously unpopular are now gaining popularity among Nigerian dental graduates.
- ItemOpen AccessDeterminants of journal choice among Nigerian medics(Pan African Medical Journal, 2013) Nwhator, S.O; Agbaje, M.O; Soroye, M; Isiekwe, G.IIntroduction: Despite the well-known maxim "publish or perish" among academicians, productivity remains low in Nigeria. There are barriers to academic writing which must be identified and addressed. Even after addressing those barriers, authors are faced with another dilemma-where to publish. It was the concern of the authors to evaluate perceived barriers to academic writing and the determinants of journal choice among Nigerian academics. They also attempted to evaluate the determinants of journal choice and perceived barriers to academic writing among Nigerian academicians. Respondents were academicians used in the context of this study to mean anyone involved in academic writing. Such persons must have written and published at least one paper in a peer-reviewed journal in the preceding year to be included in the survey. An online-based self-administered questionnaire. Methods: An online structured and self-administered questionnaire-based cross sectional survey of Nigerian medical academicians was conducted over a period of one year using a Google-powered questionnaire. The questionnaire assessed the determinants of journal choice, perceived barriers to publications, number of publications in the preceding year as a measure of academic productivity and the highest publication fee authors were willing to pay. Results: Of the over 500 email request sent, a total of 200 academicians responded (response rate of 40%). The male and female distribution was 120 and 80 respectively. The highest number of respondents were lecturer 1 and senior lecturers (or junior faculty) (69.5%) however the senior faculty had the higher number of publications in the preceding year. Indexing (35.5%) was the most important determinant of journal choice whilst ease of submission (2.1%) was the least. Unfriendly environment (46%) was the most perceived barrier to publication. Though, majority (88.5%) of the respondents were willing to pay up $300 as publication fees, twice as many junior faculty members (28%) were willing to pay more than $300 as publication fee when compared with professors (12.5%). About 140 of the respondents (70%) were doctors/dentists. Conclusion: In this study, the major determinant of journal choice among Nigerian medics is journal indexing and unfriendly environment appears to be the major perceived barrier to publication. Encouraging a friendly and conducive environment in the universities will impact positively in academic productivity amongst Nigerian faulty members.
- ItemOpen AccessUse of Twin Block of Clark in Management of Angle's Class II Malocclusion(New York State Dental Journal, 2013) Isiekwe, G.I; daCosta, O.OA case report on the orthodontic management of a 10-year-old female patient with Angle’s Class II Division I malocclusion, 12 mm overjet, incompetent lips, a deep bite and a lower midline shift to the right using the Twin Block of Clark is presented. Treatment objectives included reduction of the overjet and overbite, obtaining a Class I molar and canine relationship, and improving the patient’s profile. After a thorough patient assessment, a two-phase orthodontic treatment plan was chosen with myofunctional therapy using the Twin Block constituting the first phase of treatment. Second phase of treatment was to be carried out using a preadjusted edgewise appliance system. Active treatment with the Twin Block lasted for nine months. Patient’s compliance with the appliance was good, and an overjet reduction to 4.5 mm was achieved with an improvement in facial profile after the first phase of treatment. The Twin Block of Clark is a very good treatment alternative in managing selected cases of Angle’s Class II Division I malocclusion.
- ItemOpen Access'One Phase' versus 'Two-phase' Orthodontic treatment in the Management of Angles Class II Malocclusion: A case report comparing treatments of two biological sisters(West African College of Surgeons, 2014) Isiekwe, G.I; Adekoya, M.N; Dacosta, O.OThe objective of this study was to compare two different treatment protocols (‘one phase’ and ‘two-phase’ treatments) for the management of Angle’s Class II Division I malocclusion, using the case reports of two biological sisters treated at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-araba, Lagos. A comparison was made of the orthodontic treatment of both sisters, aged 15 and 10 years, who presented at the Orthodontic Unit of the Child Dental Health Department of the LUTH Dental Clinic, in 2005 and 2008, respectively. On examination, they both had severe cases of Angles Class II Division I malocclusion, with overjets of 12mm and 13mm, respectively, and very deep bites. One-phase (delayed) orthodontic treatment, involving a two- unit extraction in the upper arch, with fixed appliance therapy and reinforced anchorage was chosen for the older sister; while for the younger sister, a two-phase (early) treatment plan was chosen. This involved the use of a functional appliance: the twin block of Clark, in the first phase and fixed appliance therapy in the second phase. The same clinicians treated both sisters. Active treatment duration lasted approximately 57months and 48months for the older and younger patients, respectively. Post-treatment overjets of 4mm and 3.5mm, respectively, with normal overbites, were obtained in both patients. One phase and two-phase treatment protocols can be successfully used in the management of Angles Class II Division I malocclusion. Each protocol has its advantages and limitations. However, a thorough patient assessment and selection is required for the best treatment outcome in each case.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of Mothers' Oral Health Knowledge: Towards Oral Health Promotion for Infants and Children(Scientific Research, 2014) Oredugba, F; Agbaje, M; Ayedun, O; Onajole, AAim: To assess the knowledge and oral health practices of a selected population of mothers in order to develop appropriate oral health promotion program for children in the area. Method: A cross sectional study was carried out among a convenient sample of mothers who attended two well-baby clinics—a tertiary and a primary health care centre in Lagos, Nigeria. A questionnaire requesting personal information, previous exposure to and source of oral health education (OHE), knowledge of oral health, diet and oral hygiene practices was administered. Results: There were 104 participants, aged 21 - 46 years (mean 32.01 ± 4.85 years); 58.7% had received OHE, 23.1% from electronic media, 22.1% dentist and 9.6%, doctor or nurse. Only 44 (42.3%) had attended the dentist, 5 (4.8%) in <1 year and 10 (9.6%) within 1 - 2 years. Most younger mothers, compared with older mothers had knowledge of fluoride (x2 = 8.51, p = 0.014). Only 44 (42.3%) and 20 (19.2%) respectively believed the type of baby food and supplement affect the child’s teeth. Conclusion: Participants in this study showed inadequate knowledge of preventive oral health care. Regular OHE is recommended for mothers at the well baby and immunization clinics where they can be easily reached by health professionals.