Browsing Department Of Cell Biology & Genetics by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 191
Results Per Page
- ItemOpen AccessWEATHER FACTORS AFFECTING THE RESPONSE OF MAIZE TO PLANTING DATES IN A TROPICAL RAINFOREST LOCATION(Cambridge University Press, 1984-08-02) Fakorede, M. A. B.; Opeke, B.O.Simple linear correlations, stepwise multiple regressions and path-coefficient analyses were used to determine the relation between grain yield of maize (Zea mays L.) and weather factors in a three year study involving several planting dates within each year. Maximum and minimum relative humidity, which demonstrated negative relationships with yield, were the most reliable factors, both directly and indirectly, for predicting yield. Temperature (including accumulated heat units), sunshine hours and total and effective rainfall generally showed negligible direct effects on yield. Potential evaporation, which showed positive correlation, had a negative direct influence on grain yield. We conclude that, whenever possible, path analysis should be used as well as correlation and regression analyses in explaining the complex multiple interactions of yield and weather factors in crop production.
- ItemOpen AccessEnvironmental indices for the analysis of genotype X environment interaction in maize(Maydica, 1986) Fakorede, M. A. B.; Opeke, B.O.One independent (physical) and two partially independent (biophysical) indices were compared with a dependent (biological) index for two sets of yield trials in maize (Zea Mays L.). The object was to investigate whether the environmental response of maize genotypes would be affected by different measures of the environment. The four types of indices gave remarkably similar partitioning of the G X E interaction. Although magnitude of the regression coefficients (b-values) changed markedly with change in type of environmental index, ranking of the genotypes was little affected. Therefore, interpretation of the data was not affected by the type of environmental index use1f to assess the environment.
- ItemOpen AccessGenetic variability, heritability estimates, correlations and predicted responses to S1 selection for seedling emergence and yield in three maize populations(Nigerian Journal of Agronomy, 1986-04-14) Opeke, B.O.; Fakorede, M. A. B.S1 families from three tropical maize (Zea mays L.) populations; FARZ 27, FARZ 34 and TzSR-W-l, were used to study genetic variation for emergence percentage (E%); emergence index (EI), emergence rate index (ERI) and yield. Significant genotypic. differences existed for all traits and estimates of genetic variances and heritabilities were moderate to high for all traits, indicating that selection would be effective in the desired direction for each of the traits in' the populations. Genotypic correlations of the emergence traits and yield inter se were moderate to high, thus suggesting that index selection could be practiced. Seedling emergence traits were strongly associated with stand at harvest and number of ears per plot. An increase E% would therefore lead to higher stand and number of ears at harvest and ultimately, increased grain yield. Predicted direct gains in emergence traits were higher than correlated responses to selection in the three populations. However, indirect selection for yield via ERI resulted in slightly higher predicted gains than direct selection for yield. It is concluded that 1) genetic variability exists in the three populations for emergence traits and yield, 2) the populations appear suitable for recurrent selection to improve these traits, and 3) simultaneous improvement of emergence traits and grain yield should be feasible in the three populations.
- ItemOpen AccessYield stability oil palm progenies in early and later years of production(Nigerian Journal of Agronomy, 1987) Opeke, B.O.; Fakorede, M. A. B.The production of cultivars that are highly yielding and stable in performance over a wide range of environments is a major objective in the breeding of oil palm (Elaeis sp.). Progenies resulting from nine crosses of oil palm were evaluated in the early (1-10 years), late (11-20 years) and the combined (1-20 years) periods of production for number of bunches (NB), fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) and mean bunch weight (MBW). There were significant progeny differences for all periods of production for the three traits. Generally, about 70% of the variation in each trait was due to factors which were common to all environments; i.e. E-linear. Progeny x E-linear was also significant in a few cases. Mean for each trait was also positively correlated with the regression coefficient (b-value). In these progenies, the patterns of genotype x environment interaction, as shown by the joint regression approach, appeared to be determined in the early years of production and remains more or less the same in later years. NB and FFB were less variable than MBW over all production environments; therefore, MBW may not be a good selection criterion for yield in the oil palm.
- ItemOpen AccessInterrelations among vegetative, yield and bunch quality traits in short-stem oil palm progenies(Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1989-04-04) Oboh, B.O.; Fakorede, M. A. B.Breeders usually obtain information on a large number of traits in their breeding and selection programmes. However, since some or many of these traits could be related, it is desirable to reduce the number being handled to the barest minimum without sacrificing efficiency. Breeders often use correlations, stepwise multiple regressions and path coefficient analyses to determine the nature of relationships among such characteristics. The objective of this study was to use these statistical methods to determine traits that could be useful in predicting number of bunches (NB), fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) and mean bunch weight (MBW) for 13 backcross progenies of oil palm (Elaeis sp.) grown in four replications with 12 palms per replication. Data were collected over a period of 3 or 11 years, depending on the trait. Progeny means and individual palm data, averaged across replications and years, were used for each of these analyses. Results showed that correlations involving individual palm data were similar to the progeny mean correlations. Five to seven traits accounted for about 70–90% of the variations in the dependent variables. Traits that showed the highest correlations with the dependent variables always accounted for the largest proportion of the variation (r2) in multiple regression models, but did not always have the highest direct effect (i.e. path coefficients) in path analysis of the dependent trait. Number of leaves per palm had the highest correlation (r=0.729) with, and accounted for 53.2% of the variation in NB. Path analysis however showed that percentage fruit per bunch (% F/B) was the most important determinant of NB. It exerted the highest direct effect of 0.537. The highest correlation with FFB involved number of leaves (r=0.660), which, in multiple regression models also accounted for the largest proportion (44.0%) of the variation in FFB. Path analysis showed that percentage mesocarp per fruit gave the highest direct effect (p=−0.974) for this trait. It was concluded that various combinations of number of leaves per palm, sex-ratio, percentage fruit per bunch and percentage mesocarp per fruit would be effective as indirect selection criteria for NB, FFB and MBW in this set of material.
- ItemOpen AccessOptimum time for yield evaluation and selection in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.)(Oleagineux, 1989-11) Oboh, B.O.; Fakorede, M. A. B.Three Deli dura x tenera crosses and five dura x tenera crosses plus a standard cross as check were evaluated for 20 years and the yield data were used to determine the optimum time for yield evaluation and selection in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.). Phenotypic correlations and various regression models were the statistical tools employed in the study. The results showed that cumulative yield in the fifth to eighth year of production for number of bunches, fresh fruit bunch yield and mean bunch weight were the best predictors of time to optimal selection which was determined by the regression model as the 15th year of production for number of bunches and the 13th year of production for mean bunch weight and fresh fruit bunch yield. Thus, the breeding cycle in the oil palm would be a minimum of 12-13 years.
- ItemOpen AccessIndex selection for optimum yield in backcross progenies of the oil palm(Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 1990) Oboh, B.O.; Fakorede, M. A. B.Estimates of phenotypic and genotypic variances for some vegetative and yield traits in the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) were obtained from a progeny trial consisting of 13 hybrids from the first backcross generation (BC1) of the F1 interspecific hybrid (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineensis) crossed to E. guineensis and an F1 interspecific hybrid. The parameters were used to construct selection indices for high yield at peak production stage. The result showed that early yields, usually the second and third years of production singly or in combination with one or two traits, could be used to select for oil palm genotypes that would be high yielding at maturity. This implies that a breeding cycle of 7 to 8 years would be sufficient for efficient selection for higher productivity in the oil palm.
- ItemOpen AccessFrequency of Albinism among Children attending Public Schools in Lagos, Nigeria(Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria, 1997) Adekoya, K.O.; Madojutimi, K.Students in public primary and secondary schools in different parts of Ojo Local Government area of Lagos State were examined for complete albinism. Most of the albinism had yellowish hair colour and 3 had brown hair colour only two of the eye colur types were seen in albinos. Non of the albinos has green and blue eye colour. Six albinos were found in the sample of 19,865 primary school children while 5 were found among 16,825 secondary school sample.The difference between the two samples is not statistically significant. There was also no significant difference in the occurence of the trait among male and female students. Thus, the frequency of the trait in te sample is 1 in 3319 or 30 in 100,000. The frequency is discussed in relation to the frequency observed earlier in the same State by other investigators and with frequency from other population.
- ItemOpen AccessA factor analysis of vegetative and yield traits in backcross progenies of an interspecific hybrid of oil palm(Journal of Genetics and Breeding, 1997) Oboh, B.O.; Fakorede, M. A. B.Factor analysis was performed on 18 vegetative and yield traits of 13 progenies of the oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) grown in four replications with 12 palms per plot. The progenies were the first backcross generation of the Fl interpecific hybrid (Elaeis oleifera x E. guineeensis) to E. guineensis, the West African oil palm. The crosses were made with the objective of transferring the shortstem character of E. Oleifera, the South American oil palm, to E. guineensis. Data were collected over a period of 3 to 11 years depending on the trait. The analysis was performed seperately on progeny mean data and individual palm data. In both cases, five principal factors accounted for most of the intercorrelations and explained 90 and 72% of the total variation in the dependence structure of the traits. Although the factors did not follow the same order and were not of the same magnitude in the two analyses, traits that loaded highly on a particular factor in one analysis, generally loaded highly on the same factor in the other. The factors extracted were vegetative characteristics, yield and its determinant, bunch weight and its determinants, oil quality-traits and a fifth factor that contained both vegetative and yield traits and would not therefore be~gged with a generalized name. Vegetative characteristics accounted for the largest mean and total variation on progeny mean and individual palm basis. The study supports the conclusion that, within the limits imposed by the environment and genetic composition of the material evaluated, the oil palm breeder need not measure more than one or two traits from each factor to obtain information on all other traits in the factor.
- ItemOpen AccessThe characterization of Nigerian varieties of pepper, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of seed proteins(Kluwer Academic PublisherS, 1999) Odeigah, P. G. C.; Oboh, B.O.; Aghalokpe, I. O.The possibility of using electrophoresis to characterize varieties of pepper, Capsicum annuum and Capsicum frutescens cultivated in Nigeria was investigated. The SDS-polyacrylamide gel electropherogram of extracted total seed proteins of 10 breeding lines in each of the 6 varieties investigated, revealed a pattern in which 12 polypeptide bands with apparent molecular weight range of 22 to 98 kilodaltons could be distinguished. The result showed that the six varieties could be characterized on the basis of presence/absence and staining intensities of 7 polypeptide bands. It is suggested that SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of seed proteins provides a useful analytical technique for the characterization of varieties of pepper and there may be genotype duplicates in the collection of Nigerian Capsicum germplasm.
- ItemOpen AccessEFFECTS OF WEATHER ON YIELD COMPONENTS OF THE OIL PALM IN A FOREST LOCATION IN NIGERIA(Journal of Oil Palm Research, 1999) Oboh, B.O.; Fakorede, M. A. B.Simple linear correlations, stepwise multiple regressions and path coefficient analysis were used to determine the relationship between climatic variables and yield components in the oil palm; i.e. number of bunches (CNB), fresh fruit bunch yield (FFB) and mean bunch weight (MBW) over a 13-and 20-year period. Yield could be reliably predicted from minimum relative humidity and sunshine hours 18-24 months prior to harvest.
- ItemOpen AccessSecond Chromosome viability Genetic Load and Lethal Allelic Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster in Lagos(University of Lagos, Nigeria, 2001) Adekoya, K.O.; Williams, G.O.The frequencies of recessive lethal, semilethal, subvital and quasinormal chromosomes-2 in Drosophila melanogaster from 5 sites in Lagos and one near Lagos, were determined by making one chromosome-2 from each trapped male homozygous. The frequency of allelism, among the lethal chromosomes isolated, was also determined. Heterogeneity chi-square tests among the sites were inconclusive. The results were more suggestive of free gene flow among the sites , especially as the difference between the intrasite and intersite frequencies of allelism was not significant. The very low frequencies indicated a large population. The frequencies of lethal, semilethal, subvital, quasinormal and normal chromosomes in the population were 13.1%, 5.8%, 19.4%, 52.7% and 9.0% in that order. Although the frequency of lethals was lower than expected for a lowland population located close to equator, the proportion of lethals among drastics (lethal + semilethals) was not different from values for a number of populations in higher latitudes. Also, comparisons with previous data on chromosome -3 suggest that generalizations on genetic load in populations must be based on data of all the major chromosomes in the species.
- ItemOpen AccessSecond Chromosome viability genetic load and lethal Allelic Frequency in Drosophila melanogaster in Ewekoro, Ogun State, Nigeria(Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria, 2001-11) Adekoya, K.O.The frequencies of recessive lethal, semilethal, subvital and quasinormal chromosomes-2 in Drosophila melanogaster from the cement factory at Ewekoro, Ogun State were determined by making by making one chromosome-2 from each trapped male homozygous. The frequency of allelism, among the lethal chromosomes isolated, was also determined. The frequency of lethal, semilethal, subvital, quasinormal and normal chromosomes in the population were 44.9%, 22.5%, 12.2%, 2.0% and 16.3% respectively. Although the frequency of lethals was lower than expected for a lowland population located close to equator, the proportion of lethals among drastics (lethal + semilethals) was not different from values for a number of populations in higher latitudes. The low frequencies indicated a large population and a free flow of gene was suggestive. Comparison with previous data on chromosomes - 2 and 3 suggest that generalizations on genetic load in populations must be based on data of all the major chromosomes in the species
- ItemOpen AccessSeed Protein Characterisation of Some Selected Cultivated Amaranthus Accessions(Faculty of Science, University of Lagos., 2002) Oboh, B.O.; Aghalokpe, I. O.The total seed protein of 16 accessions of Amaranth us hybridus (Amaranths) from the NIHORT germplasm were investigated by SDS- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The result of the electrophoresis indicate that the seed proteins of the Amaranthus are heterogeneous and they composed of 54 polypeptide bands with apparent molecular weight of 2 to 106 kilodaltons. The result showed that there was only one band common to all accessions and the accessions could not be separated by seed colour on the basis of staining intensities and presence/absence of bands. Accessions with the same seed colour had a higher similarity index indicating a closer relationship when compared to seeds with different colour. SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis is a valuable tool in classifying the Amaranth germplasm and the genetic and evolutionary relationships among the accessions could be determined based on similarity indices
- ItemOpen AccessRelationship within and between Solanum L. Species Based on SDS-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis of Seed Proteins.(Bio-Science Research Bulletin., 2003) Oboh, B.O.; Ajao, S. K.The relationship within and between 20 cultivars of five Solanum L species was investigated. Results from the SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the seed proteins revealed 47 polypeptide bands with molecular weight from 2.5 to 105.5 kilodaltons (kD). The cultivars could be characterized by the presence and or absence, staining intensities (degree of manifestation of proteins) and electrophoretic mobilities of the bands. The· bands were assigned to 3 zones based on the electrophoretic mobilities - fast. intermediate and slow moving band with majority of the bands in the slow moving zone. There was a common inter and intra-specific band at 3.5cm (44.5KD). There was no correlation between the banding pattern and the shape or colour of the fruit, Similarity indices shows that cultivars within the same species are more closely related than the ones between species. Data presented shows that SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of seed storage proteins is useful in classifying Solanum germplasm and that it helps in establishing the relationship within and between Solanum species
- ItemOpen AccessDesired family size and sex of children in a sample of Nigerian population(Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria, 2004-08) Adekoya, K.O.; Ojo, Y.O.In 2001/2002 academic session, sex ratio data and preferences for family size and for combinations and permutation of children were provided by 644 Nigerian students at the Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria. For the present and parental generations combined, the secondary sex ratio was estimated to be 101 males : 100 females. In the projected families, preferences for family sizes resulted in an average of 3.86 children per family. The most preferred family consisted of three children - a 2m1f combination in mfm order. Also expressed was a strong preference for permutations of sexes, resulting in a male child as first born followed by an alternation of sexes. A greater preference for male children was indicated by a combined sex ratio of 120 males : 100 females per preferred families. Family size is the critical variable in population growth and factors influencing family size include sex composition. The implication of these as related to health is discussed.
- ItemOpen AccessPrevalence of Albinism among children attending private Schools in Lagos(Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria, 2004-08) Adekoya, K.O.; Alao, B.A.Private primary and secondary school students in Orile - Iganmu and Coker Local Government Area of Lagos State were examined for complete albinism. Most of the albinos had yellowish hair colour and only 1 had brown hair colour. Only one type of eye colour similar to oculocutaneus albinism was detected in all the albinos. Thirty- four schools were visited and seven albinos were found. Six albinos were found in the sample of 13,166 (1 in 2,194) in primary school, while only one was observed at the secondary level in a sample of 3, 359 (1 in 3, 359). There was no statistical difference between the samples of primary and secondary schools but significant difference occurred between two sexes. The frequency of the trait in the sample is 1 in 2,361 or 42 in 100,000.
- ItemOpen AccessThe dialogue between Science and Theology(Faculty of Science, Lagos State University, Ojo, Lagos, Nigeria, 2004-08) Adekoya, K.O.Science the area of knowledge based on the observation and testing of facts include the working into an ordered system, a base for new knowledge and a guide to ways of getting it. Theology is the belief in the existence of a supernatural ruling power, the creator and controller of the universe who sees to the orderliness of the system. Both realms of knowledge are in search of truth either through experimentation or faith. The impact of issues such as cloning, stem-cell research, spirituality and health, genetic engineering, at the interface of science and religion reverberates worldwide and across disciplines. The forces driving this impact are diverse from globalization of scientific culture, religion responses to the new scientific vision and ethical concerns prompted by technology and environmental threats. The offshore of these revolutionary questions exceed the conceptual limitations of any discipline so scientific and religious intellectuals must tear down the cultural wall that have served to quarantine their respective disciplines and address their challenges together. This paper examines the consonance between science and theology as the work and the word of God respectively.
- ItemOpen AccessChanges in protein content and electrophoretic patterns during germination of Amaranthus hybridus seeds(Bulletin of Pure and Applied Sciences, 2005) Oboh, B.O.; Afolabi, R. A.Amaranthus hybridus seeds were germinated in dark and light conditions over a 72-hour period. Al specific intervals. the protein concentration and SDS-PAGE analysis of the seed protein extracts were determined. The results showed that there was a gradual decrease in the protein concentration from dry seeds to seeds germinated for 72 hours. with seeds germinating in the dark decreasing faster than such seeds germinated in the light. SOS - PAGE analysis further revealed that there were 3 major storage proteins in the dry seeds and these appeared in varying intensities over the 72-hour period. In some cases, the major protein totally disappeared as was the case of the protein with a molecular mass of 96.6 KDa which was actively utilized during germination especially up to the 48-hour period at which time the lowest possible number of protein bands occurred in both light and dark conditions.
- ItemOpen AccessOptimization of protocols for DNA extraction and RAPD analysis in West African fonio (Digitaria exilis and Digitaria iburua ) germplasm characterization(Academic Journals, 2005-12) Kuta, D.D.; Kwon-Ndung, E.; Dachi, S.; Bakare, O; Ogunkanmi, L.A.Fonio is an important indigenous grain crop of West Africa, but the extent of genetic diversity in fonio, its origin and phylogeny are not well understood. DNA markers allow precise characterization of plant germplasm accessions, but there is no literature report of their use in fonio. This paper reports the result of protocol optimization research for DNA isolation and RAPD analyses in fonio. High quality DNA was successfully isolated and RAPD was effectively used to study genetic similarity among fonio accessions. This result might stimulate the application of DNA markers to investigate the origin and phylogeny of fonio in Africa.