Totalitarian Challenge and Allied Response, 1919-1939
The events of the inter-war years (1919-1939) dictated the pace and structure of the international system in several ways. On the one hand, the era was one in which defeated Germany tried all it could to bounce back into the international system as a powerful nation. Under Adolf Hitler, the country pursued some policies and programmes that were revisionist in nature and consequently posed a major challenge to the international order that was put in place the aftermath of the First World War. This work assesses the emergence of totalitarianism as a fall out of the activities of Germany under Adolf Hitler, Italy under Mussolini and Japan. The work also investigates the reaction of the status quo powers, namely Britain and France, through the appeasement strategy to totalitarian challenge. The paper maintains that the policy of appeasement pursued by both Britain and France towards Germany and Italy was against the principle of the international order established at Versailles.