Abutments and periodontal parameters in prospective denture wearers

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Afr J Med Sci
Introduction: Dentures are common tooth replacement option and they may pose an increased periodontal risk to abutment teeth resulting in premature tooth loss. Aims and Objectives: To determine if a difference exists between periodontal parameters of abutment teeth, and non-abutment teeth on the same of the edentulous area in prospective denture wearers. Materials and methods: Consecutive partially edentulous patients demanding for removable partial denture were selected. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used and examination done with dental instruments - mouth mirrors, dental explorers and periodontal probes. Selected non-abutment teeth were adjacent to the abutment teeth on the same arch. Plaque assessment and periodontal pocket depths were done on the four surfaces (buccal, lingual, mesial and distal) of all abutment and non-abutment teeth excluding third molars. Probing depth estimated to the nearest minimum was recorded for the selected teeth, and data collected was analyzed with IBM SPSS 20. Student t tests and ANOVA were utilized. Results: Sixty-one participants with mean age of 60.9 ± 14.27 years, and age range from 21to71 years were seen. Thirty-six (59%) were male. Majority (96.8%) brushed with toothbrush only, 51.5% brushed once a day and 57.4% had Kennedy class III edentulous arches. Mean probing depth of abutment (2.40 ± 0.16 mm) and non-abutment teeth (2.24 ± 0.15 mm) varied significantly (p <0.001). Majority of those who brushed once daily and those who had Kennedy Class III edentulous spaces had poor Oral Hygiene (p <0.0001, p=0.03 respectively). Differences in the probing depth of abutment (F=0.46), non-abutment teeth (F = 1.11) and oral hygiene (F = 1.13, p=0.71, p=0.35, p = 0.34 respectively). Correspondence: Dr. B.O. Akinboboye, Department of Restoratve Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. E-mail: bakinboboye@unilag.edu.ng Conclusion: Abutment teeth of edentulous spaces had poorer periodontal status than non-abutment teeth, suggesting increased risk for periodontal disease for prospective abutment teeth. Greater attention should therefore be given to these abutment teeth during oral hygiene measures in denture wearers. Location of edentulous space on dental arch have significant relationship with oral hygiene status.