GPS Derived Orthometric Height for Small Engineering Surveys
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Journal of Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos.
Global Positioning System (GPS) measures heights related to the ellipsoid. GPS height differences do not reflect the direction of flow under the influence of gravity and are not physically meaningful. This makes heights from GPS of little or no use in engineering surveys and geophysical explorations, many engineering applications require heights that are related to a physically meaningful surface such as the geoid. Such physically meaningful heights are the orthometric heights. This paper reviews the different error sources affecting GPS determined heights and demonstrates the use of geometric (local) geoid model for determining orthometric heights from GPS levelling as may be required for small engineering projects.
Ellipsoidal Heights , Orthometric Heights , geoid , GPS , Research Subject Categories::TECHNOLOGY
J.B. Olaleye, O. A. Isioye and O. E. Abiodun (2009), GPS Derived Orthometric Height for Small Engineering Surveys: Journal of Engineering Research, Faculty of Engineering, University of Lagos, JER 14, No. 1, PP. 21 - 31