Mapping saline water intrusion into the coastal aquifer with geophysical and geochemical techniques: the University of Lagos campus case (Nigeria)
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Saltwater intrusion into the coastal aquifer, a phenomenon brought by the flow of seawater into freshwater aquifers originally caused by groundwater extraction near the coast, has long been recognised as a major concern around the world. In this study, we employed geophysical and geochemical techniques to map and provide evidences that the coastal aquifers in the study area have been intruded by saltwater from the adjacent Lagos lagoon. The resistivity data were acquired with an electrode spacing (a) that vary between 1.6 to 8 m, and expansion factor n of 30. The depth inverted models obtained from inversion of the fifteen resistivity data obtained in the area revealed significant impact of the lagoon water on the aquifers indicated as low resistivity usually below 7 Ωm. A combination of four different electrode arrays – Schlumberger, Wenner, Dipole-dipole and pole–dipole, with at least three deployed at each site ( except for three traverses – traverses 13, 14 and 15), yield better horizontal and vertical resolution, having depth range of 36–226 m with 1.6–8 m electrode spacing used. The delineated geoelectric layers were juxtaposed with logs from both boreholes located within the campus. Evidence from geochemical study of borehole and the lagoon water samples corroborated the ERT result. Progressive decrease in total dissolved solute (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) from the lagoon to the coastal aquifer buttresses gradual encroachment of the inland aquifers by the intruding lagoon water. In addition, similar trend was observed in heavy metal distribution Pollution Index (PI) plot suggesting possible underground flow of water from the lagoon to the aquifers. From this study, we deduced that excessive groundwater extraction and possibly the reduction of groundwater gradients which allows saline-water to displace fresh water in the aquifer of the investigated area are responsible for the saline water intrusion observed.
Saltwater intrusion , ERT , Coastal aquifer , Geochemical study , Pollution index , Delineation
Ayolabi, E. A., Folorunso, A. F., Odukoya, A. M., & Adeniran, A. E. (2013). Mapping saline water intrusion into the coastal aquifer with geophysical and geochemical techniques: the University of Lagos campus case (Nigeria). SpringerPlus, 2(1), 433.