Antimicrobial and physical properties of herbal ointments formulated with Methanolic extracts of Persea americana seed and Nauclea latifolia stem bark
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Aims: In this study the antimicrobial and physical properties of herbal ointments formulated with methanolic extracts of Persea americana seeds and Nauclea latifolia stem bark were evaluated. Methodology: The preliminary in-vitro antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts Persea americana seeds and Nauclea latifolia stem bark was determined using Mueller Hinton agar for bacteria isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Sabouraud Dextrose agar for fungi isolates (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger). Five formulations of the herbal ointment were prepared by mixing varying concentrations of the extracts with Emulsifying ointment B.P. The results from antimicrobial evaluation of the formulated ointments were compared to those of commercial brands [Gentamicin cream and Clotrimazole cream (Ytacan®)]. Results: The diameter of zones of inhibition (mm) of the Persea extract (400mg/ml) on the growth of microorganism were 19 ± 0.3 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 20 ± 0.5 (Escherichia coli), 12 ± 0.2 (Bacillus subtilis), 20 ± 0.3 (Staphylococcus aureus) and 20 ± 0.4 (Candida albicans) while that of Nauclea extract (400mg/ml) were 18 ± 0.2 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), 13 ± 1.1 (Bacillus subtilis) and 14 ± 0.1 (Candida albicans). No growth was observed for all the extracts against Aspergillus niger. The Minimum inhibitory concentration (mg/ml) values of Persea and Nauclea extracts were Pseudomonas aeruginosa 50, 200; Staphylococcus aureus 200, nil; Escherichia coli 50, nil; Bacillus subtilis 200, 400; Candida albicans 200, 400. The formulation containing only P. americana exhibited better antimicrobial activity than that of N. latifolia. The formulated ointments possessed good physical characteristics and comparably lesser antimicrobial properties to that of Gentamicin and Ytacan®. Conclusion: This study showed that the methanolic extracts of Persea americana seeds and Nauclea latifolia stem bark possess antimicrobial activities and also has high potential as antimicrobial agent when formulated as ointment. The herbal ointment containing P. americana extract compared favourably with commercial brand for bacteria but was less potent for fungi.
Persea americana , Nauclea latifolia , Herbal ointments , Antimicrobial activity , Research Subject Categories::PHARMACY
Azubuike C. P., Obiakor C. V, Igbokwe H. N, & Usman A. R. (2015). Antimicrobial and physical properties of herbal ointments formulated with methanolic extracts of Persea americana seed and Nauclea latifolia stem bark. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Pharmacy Practice, 10 (3): 166-172.