Characterization Of Some Nigerian Gums Towards Their Utilization As Pharmaceutical Excipients

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Igwilo, C.I
Odusote, M.O
Abioye, A.O
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Nig. Qt. J. Hosp. Med.
Gums were extracted locally from the stems and seeds of some plants, Some of their physicochemical properties were evaluated. The parameters evaluated for the physicochemical data of the gum powders include: Appearance, texture, colour, odour, pH, Ash value, Alcoholic extractives, crude fibre content, protein content, viscosity and swelling index. The percentages of the natural elements present in the gums like potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, manganese, copper, phosphorus and nitrogen were determined using atomic-absorption spectrophotometry. The monosaccharide content were evaluated and compared using HPLC. The possible effectiveness of the gums in pharmaceutical suspensions were computed by determining their rheological properties. Such parameters like viscosities of their aqueous mucillages were determined using Brookfield Digital viscometer. All their rheograms exhibited pseudoplastic flow properties typical of good suspending agents, The results were compared graphically and the results labelled. Some of the gums like Cissus populnea, Raphia vinifera, Mucuna flagillepes exhibited thixotropy as their down curve did not fall on the up curve. Only palm kernel cake gum did not show thixotropy. Since thixotropy is a measure of the structural breakdown of suspension, the higher the thixotropic index, the better the suspending activity of the gum. The yield (% w/w) of Cissus populnea was 14.98 ± 0.77. the whole exudate of Raphia vinifera produced fine gum. Only 2.86 ± 0.17% yield as obtained for Mucuna flagillepes. Palm kernel cake gave 0.94 ± 0.20% gum. From the above study, it appeared as if Cissus populnea gum exhibited the highest viscosity imparting property, and highest thixotropic index compared weight in weight with the other guns studied. Raphia vinifera gum however offered the highest yield but higher quantity appeared to be needed to produce similar effect with Cissus populnea. Future work on the gums would choose the most viable for the Nigerian Market.
Cissus populnea , Raphia vinifera , Mucuna flagillepes , Nigerian Gums , physicochemical properties
Odusote, M.O., Igwilo, C.I. and Abioye, A.O. (2000). Characterization Of Some Nigerian Gums Towards Their Utilization As Pharmaceutical Excipients. Nig. Qt. J. Hosp. Med., 10(3), 185-191