THE DISTRIBUTION, HISTOLOGIC PROFILE AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION OF GASTROINTESTINAL MALIGNANCIES IN LAGOS, NIGERIA
Journal of West African College of Surgeons
Background: Gastrointestinal malignancies have continued to record higher incidence and therefore pose significant public health burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Aim: To evaluate the sociodemographic, histologic and clinical distribution of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies diagnosed between July 2009 and March 2016. Setting: Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi-Araba, south-west Nigeria. Methodology: Using a retrospective study design, all the patients with histologic diagnosis of gastrointestinal malignancies were recruited and their bio-data, clinical, histologic and treatment data were extracted from their hospital records. Results: Of the 106 cases of gastrointestinal malignancies in this study, the age range was 30-82 years with a mean of 55.9±13 years and a peak age bracket of 50-59 years; the male/female ratio was 1.2:1. The most common sites were colorectum (79.3%), stomach (7.6%), anus (6.6%), liver (4.7%), and pancreas (0.9%). Adenocarcinoma was the most common histologic subtype (89.62%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma (2.83%) and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (1.89%). The most common complaints were abdominal pain (54.7%), constipation (38.7%), palpable abdominal swelling/masses (35.9%), bleeding (33.0%), and weight loss (17.0%). The tumors were treated with chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy, either singly or in combination, in 97.2%, 83.0%, and 30.2% respectively. Conclusion: In this study, colorectal cancers are still the most prevalent type of gastrointestinal malignancies with a male preponderance, and individuals between 40-59 years are at greater risk. The significant involvement of individuals who constitute the bulk of the workforce and are the most productive labor in the country points at the need to develop strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of gastrointestinal malignancies.
Adenocarcinoma; Colorectal cancers; Gastric cancers; Gastrointestinal malignancies; Nigeria.
J West Afr Coll Surg . Jan-Mar 2017;7(1):9-31.