Phytochemical and Anti-Infective Evaluation of the Extracts and Isolates of Anthocleista Vogelii (Planch) and Ficus Congensis (Engl) (Leaves and Stembark).

Decoctions prepared from the leaves and stembark of Ficus congensis (Engl) and Anthocleista vogelii (Planch) alone or in combination with other plants are used by the Southwestern Egun people of Nigeria in the management of “fevers” (translated in the local language as iba), arising from infections. This observation was to serve as the driving impetus for the present investigational work on these plants. Bioprospecting continues to hold the ace in the quest to developing new drugs against the myriad diseases plaguing mankind, especially where current ones are failing and resistivity of the microorganisms the top most concern. Phytochemicals from the different parts of the two plants were isolated with the aid of various chromatographic techniques (TLC, CC, HPLC, GC, LC) and then characterized by spectroscopic methods such as MS, IR, 1D and 2DNMR. Various extracts (from leaves and stembark) of Ficus congensis (Engl) and Anthocleista vogelii (planch) were evaluated for antibacterial and antifungal activities using Broth microdilution (MHB) and Disk Agar diffusion(DAD) assay. Anti-malaria activity of extracts obtained from various parts of both plants were also evaluated. Some physicochemical properties such as reductive and iron chelating abilities of various extracts obtained from both plants as well as their acute toxicity studies were carried out. The results obtained having subjected the crude extracts of the plants to chromatographic separation and purification, followed by spectral data analysis, afforded the following compounds; 1) Anthocleista vogelii. leaves: i) 1-hydroxy - 3, 7, 8-trimethoxyxanthone, (Decussatin) coded CS / 009, ii) 1, 8 - dihydroxy -3, 7- dimethoxyxanthone, (Swertiaperennin) coded CS/008b and iii) hexadecanoic acid, coded CS/ 008c. stembark: i) 1-hydroxyl -3, 7, 8-trimethoxyxanthone, (Decussatin) coded CS/ 001 and ii) Stigmasta-5, 22-dien-3beta-ol, (Stigmasterol) coded CS/ 003. 2) Ficus congensis (stembark), i) 1-hydroxyl -3, 7, 8-trimethoxyxanthone, (Decussatin), coded CS/300. Results of the reductive power (Rp) assay on some of the plant extracts A.vogelii and F.congensis (especially methanol and ethanol extracts) showed potent reductive power as shown by their low RC values. Decussatin, the main isolate from A.vogelii and F.congensis showed little or minimum reductive power at 0.1mgml-1. Both plants extracts exhibited excellent iron chelating ability. Decussatin showed moderate iron chelating ability going by their IC values. Broth microdilution method for antibacterial assay carried out with some extracts of both plants showed strong antibacterial activities against the four strains of bacteria; E. coli, B. substilus, S. aureus and K. pneumonia . Disk diffusion method for antifungal assay carried out with pet. ether leaf extract of A.vogelii revealed antifungal activity against Candida albicans out of the four strains of fungi tested while there was no activity with the pet. ether stembark extract of same plant against any of the four tested fungi; Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans. Results of antifungi studies on F. congensis showed that the methanol leaf extract was active against Candida albicans out of the four strains of fungi tested while the hexane stembark extract was active against only Candida albicans. However, Decussatin as at 8 mgml-1 and 10 mgml-1 did not show any appreciable antibacterial and antifungal activity respectively. Results of antimalaria studies showed that the IP treatment using pet. ether extracts of A. vogelii (leaves) gave appreciable antimalaria activity at 250 mgkg-1 body weight. Decussatin as at 10 mgkg-1 did not show appreciable antimalaria activity. Results of toxicity studies on A. vogelii (leaves) showed no mortality up till 2000mgkg-1(IP) while F. congensis (leaves) showed no mortality up till 10,000 mgkg-1 (orally).
A Thesis Submitted to the School of Postgraduate Studies, University of Lagos
Phytochemical , Anthocleista Vogelii , Ficus Congensis
Alaribe, C.A (2012), Phytochemical and Anti-Infective Evaluation of the Extracts and Isolates of Anthocleista Vogelii (Planch) and Ficus Congensis (Engl) ( Leaves and Stembark ). A Thesis Submitted to University of Lagos School of Postgraduate Studies Phd Thesis and Dissertation, 167pp.