The Role of Demand-Side Management in Carbon Footprint Reduction in Modern Energy Services for Rural Health Clinic
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Because of globalization, industrialization, and development due to technology, the demand for electrical energy is on the increase. There is therefore a need for efﬁcient energy measures to ensure conservation, thereby saving costs. Demand-side management (DSM) deals with conversion of energy demand of consumers into activities/programs/tactics (e.g. ﬁnancial incentives and public awareness/education), which brings about less use of energy by the consumers. Gellings and Parmenter gave a history of DSM in the United States and its inﬂuence on energy resources. They also explained the role of DSM in integrated resource planning, the main elements of DSM programs and summarized the key best practices for program design and delivery. Palensky and Dietrich (2011) described DSM as using measures such as sophisticated real-time control of distributed energy resources, better materials, smart energy tariffs with incentives for certain consumption patterns to improve energy efﬁciency. Various types of DSM were analyzed, and an overview of modern DSM projects was given. Haney et al. (2010) highlighted how integrated government DSM policies, targeting residential demand for electricity and heat are more likely.
rural clinics, demand-side management; electricity consumption; integrated resource planning; carbon footprint, firewood; tariff for the poor