Upper bound analysis for extrusion at various die land lengths
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The effects of die land lengths, a rarely investigated die extrusion parameter on the die-shaped profiles, on the extrusion pressures are investigated and presented. The analyses of the extrusion pressures by the upper bound method have been extended for the evaluations of the extrusion pressures to complex extruded sections such as square, rectangular, I,- and T-shaped sections with power of deformation due to ironing effect at the die land taken into account. The extrusion pressure contributions due to the die land evaluated theoretically for shaped sections considered are found to increase with die land lengths for any given percentage reduction and also increase with increasing percentage die reductions at any given die land length. The effect of die land lengths on the extrusion pressure increases with increasing complexity of die openings geometry with I-shaped section giving the highest extrusion pressure followed by T-shaped section,rectangular, circular-shaped die openings with square section die opening, giving the least extrusion pressure for any given die reduction at any given die land lengths.
Extrusion pressures; Die land; Shaped sections; %reduction in area; Area ratio
J.S. Ajiboye, M.B. Adeyemi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 49 (2007) 335–351