Biafra and International Non State Actors’ Support: Diplomatic Implications for Nigeria.

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Ogunjewo, H.B.
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Taraba state university
Despite the various narrations, writings and debates on the Nigeria civil war, little attention has been paid to the actual existence of Biafra as a country from 1967 to 1970 and the support and aids received from the international non-state actors. This study examines the contributions of the Non-State actors to the literature on the civil war from the perspective of the impact of such support on the war. Relying on newspaper reports, interviews, commentaries and secondary sources such as journal articles and books, the study adopted frustration-aggression theory as theoretical framework of analysis. The methodological approach adopted is multidisciplinary and qualitative analysis with historical narratives. The study examines the nature, structure and impact of non-state support in the overall outcome of the thirty month war and the implications of such support in diplomatic terms for Nigeria. The findings of the study reveals that the availability of support from state and non-state actors had tremendous impact on the duration/outcome of the war. The study reveals that, although Biafra was ill-equipped for the war, with fewer army personnel and less equipment, it had a few advantages over the Nigerian state as they were fighting in their homeland, had the support of most Biafrans; instant recognition by Gabon, Cote d’Ivoire, Haiti, Zambia and Tanzania, emotional, material support but not recognition by Israel, France, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Zimbabwe, South Africa and the Vatican City. Critically, Biafra received support from non-state actors or non-governmental organizations including Joint Church Aid, The Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland and Caritas International as well as the U.S. Catholic Relief Services. Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors without Borders) also originated in response to the suffering of the Biafrans during the war. The study concludes that Non State actors had tremendous impact on the survival of the Biafrans, the duration of the war and overall narrative of the thirty month war. Non-State actors have a measurable effect on policy outcomes of other actors on the international scene. Based on the findings, the study recommends the need to strategically and diplomatically engage the Non-State actors for their intervention in the agricultural efforts of the country and her current struggles against terrorism.
Scholarly Articles
Diplomatic Implications , Aids, Biafra , International Non State Actors , Outcome and Support
Ogunjewo, H.B. (2020). Biafra and International Non State Actors’ Support: Diplomatic Implications for Nigeria. Journal of Social and Management Sciences, A Publication of Taraba State University, Jalingo, Nigeria. Vol. 3 No. 1, December 2020, pp 197-210