Proximate Composition, Elemental Analysis, Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Properties of the Leaves of Costus afer KER GAWL
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The chemical analysis and antibacterial properties of the leaves of Costus afer (Costaceae) and Cedrela odorata (Maliaceae) were studied. These plants are used in the treatment of various ailments such as venereal diseases, skin eruption and gastro-intestinal disorder in Nigeria and Africa, in general. Proximate analysis showed high content of carbohydrate and lipid in C. afer, whereas, C. odorata was found to have high content of carbohydrate, ash and fiber. Minerals such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus were higher in C. afer compared with higher content of calcium, iron and aluminum in C. odorata. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, saponnins, alkaloids and anthraquinones in both plants. Phenols are present only in C. odorata and flavonoids only in C. afer. The ethanol, methanol, acetone and aqueous extracts of the plants exhibited broad spectrum antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcoccus faecalis, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 125 mg/mL. The ethanol, methanol and acetone extracts of C. odorata inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, E. faecalis and B. cereus, while methanol extract of C. afer showed activity against S. typhi. The results of this study indicated that C. odorata and C. afer plants contain substantial amounts of minerals and organic constituents, confirming their potential use in nutrition. The results of their phytochemical screening could justify the observed antimicrobial activities and validate their use in herbal medicine.
Research Subject Categories::NATURAL SCIENCES::Chemistry::Organic chemistry , Cedrela odorata , Costus afer , phytochemical , Antibacterial
Asekun O. T., Asekunowo A. K and Balogun K. A. (2013). Proximate Composition, Elemental Analysis, Phytochemistry and Antibacterial Properties of the Leaves of Costus afer KER GAWL.