Translation, Validation, Diagnostic Accuracy, and Reliability of Screening Questionnaire for Parkinsonism in Three African Countries

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Shalash, A.
Okubadejo, N.U.
Doumbe, J.
Ojo, O.O.
Hamid, E.
Kuate, C.
et al
Tanner, C.M.
Cubo, E.
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IOS Press
Background: Availability of validated Parkinson's disease (PD) questionnaires in languages spoken in Africa will enable the conduct of epidemiological studies. Objective: The aims of the current study were to develop cross-cultural translated and validated Arabic and French versions of a PD screening questionnaire, and determine its diagnostic accuracy for recognition of parkinsonism in early and moderate-advanced PD in three countries (Cameroon (French), Egypt (Arabic), and Nigeria (English)). Methods: This cross-sectional study screened 159 participants (81 PD and 78 controls) using the PD screening questionnaire. The questionnaire was translated into Arabic and French versions using standard protocols. Cognitive function was assessed using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment and the Identification and Intervention for Dementia in Elderly Africans cognitive screen. Co-morbidity burden was documented using the Charlson Comorbidity Index. PD severity and stage were evaluated using the MDS Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale and the Hoehn and Yahr scale respectively. Results: Both PD patients and controls were matched regarding age, gender, education, and co-morbidity burden. The PD screening questionnaire scores were significantly higher in PD (median 8.0, IQR 6.0-10.0) in contrast to controls (0.0, IQR 0.0-0.0) (p < 0.0001), with a similar pattern and level of significance across all country sites. In ROC analysis, the questionnaire demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy for PD overall, with an AUC of 0.992 (95% CI 0.981-1.002). Conclusion: The Arabic, French, and English versions of this PD screening questionnaire are valid and accurate screening instruments for recognition of Parkinsonism. This paves the way for conducting epidemiological studies in many African countries.
African countries; Parkinson’s disease; questionnaire; screening; translation; validation.
Shalash, A., Okubadejo, N. U., Doumbe, J., Ojo, O. O., Hamid, E., Kuate, C., Calvo, S., Helmi, A., Agabi, O. P., Essam, M., Aguado, L., Elrassas, H., Roushdy, T., Tanner, C. M., & Cubo, E. (2020). Translation, Validation, Diagnostic Accuracy, and Reliability of Screening Questionnaire for Parkinsonism in Three African Countries. Journal of Parkinson's disease, 10(3), 1113–1122.