Effects of extrusion variables on temperature distribution in axisymmetric extrusion process
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A numerical method was developed to simulate the non-steady-state temperature distributions during forward extrusion process. The velocity, strain rates, and strain fields within the deformation zones during extrusion were obtained, using upper bound method of analysis to obtain internal heat generations coupled to the necessary heat transfer conduction equations. The computer program written in C++ language essentially simulates the extrusion process and takes into account extrusion variables such as material properties, friction conditions, extrusion velocity, extrusion ratio, die preheat temperature, billet height, percentage reduction in area, and die land length. The effects of billet height and percentage reduction in area on the temperature distributions within the dead metal zone give good agreements with experimental results. It is found that the higher the billet’s heights and higher the percentages reduction in areas, the higher the temperature rises during the extrusion process. The die land zone shows increasing temperature rise with increasing friction coefficient, while increasing friction coefficient has no effect on the dead zone temperature. Also, increasing speed of deformation shows an increasing dead zone temperature rise than a more gradual die land temperature rise. It can be stated that the extrusion temperature increases proportionally to the increase of the container temperature. r 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Billet height; % reduction in area; Dead metal zone; Die land zone; Temperature distribution; Ram travel
J.S. Ajiboye, M.B. Adeyemi / International Journal of Mechanical Sciences 50 (2008) 522–537