Green synthesis of Ag, Zn and Cu nanoparticlesfrom aqueous extract of Spondias mombin leaves and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

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Adeyemi D.k, Adeluola A.O, Akinbile M.J, Johnson O.O, Ayoola
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Background: Nanotechnology offers an advantage as a green route for synthesis of metal nanoparticles (NPs) with plant extracts as capping agent. Spondias mombin is a fruit-bearing tree and its leaf extracts have been reported to possess anxiolytic, hypoglycaemic, antiepileptic, antipsychotic, sedative, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties. The objective of the study is to determine the antibacterial potential of a simple non-toxic product of green synthesis of metallic (Ag, Zn and Cu) nanoparticles using the leaf of Spondias mombin aqueous extracts (SMAE) as a reducing and capping agents of the metal ions. Methodology: Nanoparticles were characterized by UV visible spectrophotometeric analysis, Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FT-IR) spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Antimicrobial activities of synthesized NPs against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were determined by agar well diffusion technique. Results: The synthesized NPs varied in colour from dark brown to green and appears dominantly spherical, occasionally rod or triangular shaped with size ranging from 65-90 nm. UV spectroscopy absorption spectra of Ag, Zn and Cu NPs had absorbance peak at 267, 262 and 765 nm respectively. FT-IR spectrometry of Zn NP, Cu NP, and SMAE gave wave number ranging from 895.71-3320.67, 747.02-3225.45 and 658.25-3674.49 cm-1 respectively. FT-IR analysis showed that SMAE acted as reducing and stabilizing agent while the NPs exhibited lower energy absorption band when compared to the plant extract. The NPs demonstrated higher antimicrobial activities against S. aureus than Ps. aeruginosa and E. coli. The antimicrobial activity was higher with copper NP than Ag and Zn NPs, and also higher than SMAE. Conclusion: The result from this study presents an indication for an alternative means for development of novel antimicrobial agents for clinical and biotechnological applications.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the Director, Central Research Laboratory, University of Lagos, for permission to use the laboratory facilities. The authors appreciate Mr. G. I. Nodza of the Department of Botany, University of Lagos, for assistant in the plant identification
synthesis, nanoparticles, FT-IR, UV-visible spectrophotometry, antibacterial activities