Patterns of Instructional Planning and Utilization of Community Resources among Primary Science Teachers in Cross River State

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Edem, E.
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University of Lagos
The study reported here was prompted by the quest for an information about the degree or extent to which the federal Government Core Curriculum for Primary Science 1980 is being implemented in Cross River State. Furthermore, there was the quest for confirming or refuting the appropriateness of the objective model for instructional planning which was used for the primary science programme. The purpose of the study was in three parts, was discover: (a) the patterns of instructional planning strategies among primary science teachers in Cross River State, (b) the relationship if any, between the instructional planning strategy adopted by a teacher and the extent of utilization of community resources and (c) the levels of the use of community resource which were recommended in the curriculum for primary science teaching and learning. The study was based on five assumptions and fourteen research hypotheses. Three hundred and sixty-two a(362) primary science teachers were involved in the study. Selection was by stratified random sampling technique. The level of use Instrument first described by Hall and Loucks, (1977) and a teacher Questionnaire on Instructional Planning Strategies were used for data collection. Eight alternatives for instructional planning were confirmed by the study. Nine levels of use of an innovation were also confirmed. Results show that unlike what the primary science curriculum recommends, the teachers in their approaches to instruction were more material centred, content carried, diagnosis centred, activities centred than objectives centred. Although a significant relationship was not established between the planning pattern a teacher adopted and his use of community resources, certain community resources were more popularly used by teachers than others. The popularly used resources were those that are simple to use and of relatively low cost. These include; materials brought from home by pupils, indigenous concepts and ideas useable for illustrations and examples during teaching and materials within the school compound. The least used resources as results show, were those which involve mass movement of pupils outside the school compound, (e.g. trips to a factory, artisan workshop) and the use of resource person in the community. As to the levels of use of community resources, it was found that majority of the users were in the refinement level of use, that is, the level where the user uses curriculum material with some modifications to suit his own purpose or situation. Results also showed that a teacher’s perception of the professional training received and his perception of the number of pupils in his class has a significant influence on his instructional planning strategies, and hence, the influence on his use of community resources. It was also found that the gender of the teacher, years of teaching experience, the syllabus or curriculum and professional training, did not significantly influence a teacher’s instructional planning strategy. Lessons were learnt from this study, especially that, if during the planning process the planners take into account the user’s needs and capabilities, then implementation effectiveness will be high. Certain hypotheses which require future research were generated from this theory. In the same vein, some strategies for effective teacher education programs were also proffered in the study.
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Instructional Planning , Resources , Community Resources
Edem, E. (1988). Patterns of Instructional Planning and Utilization of Community Resources among Primary Science Teachers in Cross River State. A Dissertation Submitted to the faculty of Education, University of Lagos in Part Fulfilment for the Award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.