Monitoring Cu bioaccumulation in cocoa from Cu-based pesticides treated cocoa farms using Fuzzy Similarity Method
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Taylor and Francis
Cocoa production has been hindered by pests, leading to application of pesticides. These pesticide applications have raised health concerns. This study is therefore aimed at developing accumulation classifications for copper (Cu) in cocoa from plantations where Cu-based pesticides have been applied using fuzzy similarity method (FSM). Cocoa pods, seeds, leaves, and soil samples were collected from five different plantations from three states in Nigeria. The plant samples were digested using standard methods, whereas the Cu in soil samples was extracted with 1 M ammonium acetate. The products were analyzed for Cu using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The Cu concentrations obtained were used to model the accumulation degree using FSM. The Cu concentrations were higher in the leaves than the seeds and the pods. The persistency of Cu was displayed by high concentrations (11.5–375 mg/kg) and enrichment factor in CRIN sites where this pesticide application has been stopped for over a decade. The leaves from Ondo sites had the highest Cu concentration, which indicates impact of recent applications. The FSM membership function and algorithm indicated that the plant parts had low degrees of accumulation for fresh leaves, pods, and seeds, the valued part applied in beverages, but for the dry leaves, the accumulation degree is high. It may be concluded that the applied Cu-based pesticide had more impact and accumulation on the leaves than the commercial valued seeds, but the Cu concentration in the seeds is above the recommended value.
bioaccumulation , cocoa , copper , fuzzy logic , pesticides
Olu-Owolabi, B. I., Agunbiade, F. O., Fagbayigbo, B. O., & Adebowale, K. O. (2013). Monitoring Copper Bioaccumulation in Cocoa from Copper-Based Pesticide–Treated Cocoa Farms Using Fuzzy Similarity Method. Bioremediation journal, 17(3), 131-147.