Potentials Of Alkaloids From Panicum Maximum Florets Infected With The Fungus Tilletia Ayresii In Controlling Uterine Contraction In Sprague- Dawley Rats

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Kanife, U.C
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School of Postgraduate Studies University of Lagos
The potential of alkaloids from Panicum maximum floret infected with the fungus Tilletia ayresii in the control of uterine contraction in Sprague-Dawley rats was investigated using bioassay-guided fractionation technique. Disease incidence study revealed that smut disease was significantly higher in Ikorodu site (95.00%) when compared with Akoka site (69.00%) and Isolo site (72.00%). The height of disease incidence was between the months of August and November. Thirteen species of fungi were identified as fungi associated with smutted florets and out of these, Aspergillus niger, A. fumigatus and Tilletia ayresii occurred most frequently (100%), A. flavus (80%) while others such as A. wentii, Trichoderma sp.., Mucor sp., Penicillium pinophyllum, Fusarium sp., F. fujikuroii recorded 40%. Syncepalastrum racemosa, Curvularia lunata and Paeciliomyces sp. were least frequent (20%). Only T. ayresii was pathogenic and five spore types were isolated from T. ayresii (Basidiospores, ‘Y- shaped conidia, blastic conidia, ballistospores, and teliospores). The genus and species of Fusarium sp. and F. fujikuroii were further confirmed by DNA sequencing. Growth studies of the fungal isolates on six solid and three broth media showed that the best media for their cultivation are potato dextrose agar, potato dextrose broth and malt extract agar. Ethnobotanical studies of crude aqueous, ethanol and chloroform extract of infected Panicum maximum florets, produced dose-dependent contraction of uterine smooth muscle of non-pregnant rat with ethanol extract being more potent than others. However, the healthy P. maximum floret extracts (aqueous, ethanol, and chloroform) produced relaxation effects. Infected ethanol fraction produced a similar pattern of contraction with ergometrine (standard) stimulated uterine muscle. The ethanol fractions spotted on Thin Layer Chromatography plates revealed three compounds under UV light (366nm) with Rf values of 0.20 (zone A), 0.30 (zone B) and 0.90 (zone C) respectively. Further fractionation and bioassay of the three compounds showed that the compounds in zone A with Rf value of 0.20 was active while the others were not. Effect of ethanol and chloroform extracts of infected Panicum maximum florets on six fungal isolates showed that they inhibited the growth of all the fungal isolates except Tilletia ayresii at varying concentrations. However Benlate (plant orthodox fungicide) inhibited the growth of T. ayresii while ketaconazole (animal orthodox fungicide) did not. A preliminary phytochemical screening of the healthy and infected P. maximum floret extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins and flavonoids in varying proportions. The percentage of alkaloids, tannins and sapoinins was higher in the crude ethanol extracts of infected floret than in healthy florets. The acute toxicity value (LD50) of infected ethanol and chloroform extract were determined to be 9.0g/kg body weight. Significant reduction in body weight was observed in groups treated with highest dose of the extracts at the third week of administration (p<0.05). There was a non-significant reduction in plasma protein, creatinine and total bilirubin while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) showed appreciable reduction at low to moderate doses (p>0.05) but increased significantly only at the highest dose of the extract (p<0.05). The levels of high and low density cholesterol were not affected significantly . The haemoglobin, red blood cells, white blood cells and packed cell volume increased in treated animals compared to the control. In this study alkaloids were extracted from T. ayresii infected Panicum maximum florets and purified. They demonstrated potency in inducing contraction and controlling bleeding after childbirth. The high LD50 value (9.0g/kg) obtained was a clear indication that the infected extracts is safe to use, since it reduced level of cholesterol significantly and did not induce toxic effects on the liver, kidney and heart.
Alkaloids , Panicum Maximum Florets , Fungus Tilletia Ayresii , Controlling Uterine Contraction , Sprague- Dawley Rats , bioassay-guided fractionation technique
Kanife,U.C (2012) Potentials Of Alkaloids From Panicum Maximum Florets Infected With The Fungus Tilletia Ayresii In Controlling Uterine Contraction In Sprague- Dawley Rats. A Thesis Submitted to University of Lagos School of Postgraduate Studies Phd Thesis and Dissertation.