Optimal Wax Inhibitor Formulations for Nigerian Crude Oil-Water Emulsion Flow in Subsea Pipelines
No Thumbnail Available
Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Nigerian crude oil and in fact most crude oil samples produced from different reservoirs around the world are characterized with high percentage of sediments and water, coupled with the presence of resin and asphaltene in the crude oil compositions which aid in the formation of water in oil emulsion. There is a high probability of emulsion formation during the flow of crude oil through the pipeline. In this study, an experimental design method was used to optimize the wax inhibitors/demulsifier mixture performance during the flow of emulsified crude oil in subsea pipeline. In the formulation of optimal wax inhibitor mixtures, addition of demulsifier (Butyl-acrylate) to each of the crude oil samples and inhibitors (mixture of acrylate ester polymers and xylene) increased the efficiency of the wax inhibitors at low cooling temperatures (4oC - 16oC). The average wax inhibition (WIav) values of 67% – 82% were obtained with a solution of the demulsifier, the inhibitors and the oil compared to values of 46% – 65% without the demulsifier. The demulsifier term and its interaction with other terms also had significant influence on the WIav, with P-values of less than 0.05 (P < 0.05) at the optimum AEP/Xylene/Butyl-acrylate formulation.
overall wax inhibition percentage, demulsifier, water-oil emulsion, optimum conditions, wax appearance temperature.
Adeyanju, O.A. and Oyekunle L.O. (2018): “Optimal Wax Inhibitor Formulations for Nigerian Crude Oil-Water Emulsion Flow in Subsea Pipelines” Journal of Characterization and Development of Novel Material, Vol. 10, issue 4, 237 - 250. Publisher: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.