Testicular toxicological effects of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART): An x-ray on the therapeutic potential of bioflavonoids
The advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has improved the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS, however, the side effects of cART on the testes has been of great concern because of the reproductive desires of these people. This study was designed to determine the modulating and curative roles of bioflavonoids on cART-induced testicular disorders. Thirty-five (35) adult male rats were randomly divided into 7 groups and treated with; 1ml of distilled water; 24mg/kg cART (3TC, 300mg+TDF, 300mg+EFV, 600mg); 1% v/v DMSO; 50mg/kg Naringenin (N), 50mg/kg Quercetin (Q), 50mg/kg of Q and N co administered differently with 24mg/kg cART. There was marked depletion of cells of the spermatogenic series in the seminiferous tubules in animals that received cART, while those that received bioflavonoids showed well-structured seminiferous tubules. cART-only treated group had significantly increased MDA levels as well as significantly reduced SOD and GSH levels when compared with control (p<0.05). Hormonal analysis showed a significant increase in TT and LH in the H/N treated group and H/Q group respectively compared with cART-only group (p<0.05) while a significant decrease was observed in FSH in cART-only and other treated groups (except N and H/Q) compared with control (p<0.05). 3β HSD expression was significantly reduced in the cART-only treated group (p<0.05) compared with control while the co-treatment with quercetin significantly (p<0.05) increased 3β HSD expression. This study demonstrates the curative potential of selected bioflavonoids in mitigating testicular cART-induced effects.
Combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART); oxidative stress; testis; 3β HSD; Naringenin; Quercetin