Acute and Sub-acute Toxicity Profile of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Nymphaea lotus Linn (Nymphaeaceae) in Wistar Rats

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Sharaibi, O. J.
Ogundipe, O.T.
Magbagbeola, O. A.
Kazeem, M. I.
Afolayan, A. J.
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Pharmacotherapy Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Benin, Benin City
Purpose: To evaluate the acute and sub-acute toxicity profile of the aqueous leaf extract of Nymphaea lotus L in Wistar rats. Methods: Acute toxicity study was performed by administering a single oral dose of 5000 mg/kg body weight of the extract to 5 rats while distilled water was given to another 5 rats (control), and the animals were observed for 14 days. Thereafter, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg doses of the extract were administered to different groups of 5 rats each daily for 28 days while control received distilled water. At the end of the experiment, the animals were sacrificed and the serum obtained was used for the assessment of haematological and biochemical parameters. Histological examination was also performed on the liver and kidney of the rats. Results: The concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (42.56 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (126.01 U/L) and alkaline phosphatase (183.33 U/L) significantly decreased while creatinine (0.64mg/dL) and chloride ions (94.50 mmol/L) were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) compared to those of control following the extract treatment. Haematological parameters were not significantly different (p >0.05) from those of control except white blood cell count (7.80 × 109/L), lymphocytes (5.20 %) and monocytes (2.72 %) which were significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the 100 and 200 mg/kg treated groups. Histopathology did not reveal any sign of lesions or pathological changes in the organs that could be attributed to treatment with the plant extract. Conclusions: These results suggest that the aqueous leaf extract of Nymphaea lotus may be safe for use at the doses tested.
Nymphaea lotus, Toxicity, White blood count, Alkaline phosphatase, Histology
Sharaibi, O. J., Ogundipe, O. T., Magbagbeola, O. A., Kazeem, M. I. and Afolayan, A. J. (2015). Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 14(7): 1231-1238