Browsing Volume 4, Issue 1, 2016 by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessUrinary 1-Hydroxypyrene Concentration and Toxicity Biomarkers in Active and Passive Male Smokers from Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Fayeun, O.E; Adeleye, S; Eze, C.G; Omoniyi, Y.A; Olagbaju, A.O; Olasore, H.S; Awodele, O; Osuntoki, A.A A.A,; Igwo-Ezikpe, M.NBackground: Tobacco smoking is one of the commonest addictions of modern times and it is a major source of human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Objectives: This study investigated the level of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration, liver and kidney function biomarkers as well as antioxidant status in tobacco smokers and non-smokers in Lagos Metropolis, Nigeria. Methods: Eighty adult males (30 Active smokers, 10 Passive smokers and 40 Non-smokers) were recruited form two different locations in Lagos and were given a standardized questionnaire. Twenty four hour urine samples were collected and used to assay for urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentration while blood samples were used to determine haematological, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), albumin, total bilirubin (TB), total protein (TP), alkaline phosphatise (ALP), creatinine, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione reductase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA) parameters. Results: Urinary 1-hydoxylpyrene levels in active and passive smokers were not significantly (p>0.05) different but were significantly (p≤0.05) higher than that of non-smokers. Similarly, AST, ALP activities; TB and creatinine levels were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in active and passive smokers than non-smokers. There was also significant (p≤0.05) decrease in SOD and CAT in active and passive smokers while MDA was increased in active and passive smokers compared to non-smokers. Conclusion: The high levels of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, liver enzymes and distorted antioxidant biomarkers in passive smokers are indicators that even passive smoking could predispose to adverse health effects because of spending considerable time in smoke polluted environment.
- ItemOpen AccessDesign and Optimization of a Water Cooled Antenna for Microwave Ablation using Finite Element Method(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adeneye, S.O; Ibitoye, Z.A; Akpochafor, M.O; Aweda, M.A; Ajekigbe, A.TMicrowave ablation is a technique for treating cancerous tissues with the application of heat. Some tumors are located such that they cannot be successfully treated with conventional external radiation beam techniques. Microwave ablation is currently an alternative option being considered for the treatment of unresectable tumors. In this study, we designed a water cooled microwave antenna for tumor ablation. The water cooled antenna for hepatic microwave ablation was designed using Finite Element Methods (FEMs) (COMSOL MULTIPHYSICSTM version 4.4). Finite element methods were used to study the electromagnetic (EM) field and thermal distributions in liver. The water slot position, water slot length and the antenna slot length, from the tip of the antenna (z = 0 mm) were varied within the ranges (43 ≤ z ≤ 60 mm), (1 ≤ z ≤10.5 mm) and (1 ≤ z ≤ 20 mm) at 1 mm, 0.5 mm and 0.5 mm interval respectively, at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The design has reflection coefficient of -25.5dB, with 94.0% power dissipation into the tissue. Experimental validation shows that the inclusion of a cooling unit reduces the backward heating and increases the power deposition into liver tissue.
- ItemOpen AccessDyslipidemia Profile of Type 2 Diabetic Patients attending Staff Hospital in Ilaro, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adedoja, D.W; AbduFattah, A; Yusuf, M.IDyslipidemia is a common feature of diabetic patients, and this condition is a risk factor for the development of cardiovascular diseases. The dyslipidemia patterns were investigated in diabetic patients undergoing medical and dietary treatment. Diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Clinic in State Hospital, Ilaro, Nigeria were recruited into the study after their informed consent. Both anthropometric and biochemical analysis was conducted. Both diabetic normotensive (DBN) and diabetic hypertensive (DBH) subjects had significantly reduced (p < 0.05) plasma phospholipids and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), as well as significantly increased (p < 0.05) concentration of plasma glucose and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) compared to the non-diabetic subjects. Atherogenic indices (LDL-C/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C) were also significantly elevated (p < 0.05) in the diabetic subjects compared to the other groups. This study suggests that dyslipidemia occurred in these diabetic patients due to complications from diabetes mellitus, and this may predispose them to cardivascular diseases like atherosclerosis.
- ItemOpen AccessEstimation of Standard Kidney Volume in Adult Nigerian Population: using 3D Reconstruction of Abdominal Multi Detector Computer Tomography (MDCT) Scan Images(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Oluwatosin, A.T; Osinubi, A.A; Giwa, T.O; Tijani, K.H; Akinde, O.RThe kidney volume is an indicator of its size, which depends on the length, breadth and thickness. It can therefore be useful as a quantitative index of value in taking decision during urological management. This study evaluated the kidney volume, length, breadth and thickness among adult Nigerians using MDCT. This research involved retrospective review of abdominal MDCT scan images of 301 patients (male 181, female 120) age (20-65yrs). The data processing includes extra-polating 3D dimension from computer tomography and measuring the maximum length, breadth and thickness of each kidney image. Using clinical prolate ellipsoid formula ( (kidney index) as kidney volume. Statistical analysis used includes mean, mode, median correlation coefficient and t-test. The kidney volume for male (157.90 cm3) is larger than female kidney volume (156.60 cm3). The volume of left kidney (165.70cm3) is larger than right kidney volume (149.40 cm3). The left kidney (9.96 cm) is longer than the right kidney (9.86 cm). Correlation coefficient between, the left kidney volume and left kidney length (r = 0.288); breadth (r = 0.565); thickness (r =0.719) while Correlation coefficient between the right kidney volume and right kidney length (r =0.286); breath (r =0.554) and thickness (r = 0.770). Kidney volume, length, breadth and thickness for adult Nigerians were established in this study using MDCT as against previous study estimating volume of kidney using its length only as is in ultrasound, carried out in Eastern Nigeria. These baseline values obtained in this investigation can be used as standard to select appropriate kidney donor and appropriate recipient kidney. The values will also be useful to monitor transplanted kidney in routine follow up, in recipient patient, whenever the need arises for Nigerians.
- ItemOpen AccessSonographers Knowledge on the Prevention and Management of Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders in North Eastern Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Dlamazira, J; Njoku, G; Okpala, C; Samuel, S.L; Mohammed, SWork-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) are common among health workers in all ages across all socio-demographic strata of the society and it has significant impact on Sonographers. They are a group of painful disorders of muscles, tendons, and nerves with impact on all aspects of life through pain and by limiting activities of daily living typically by affecting dexterity and mobility. This study is a cross-sectional survey design aimed at determining the knowledge of sonographers on the prevention and management of WMSDs in North Eastern Nigeria. A total of 52 copies of 18 1tem self-administered, structured and pretested questionnaires were distributed to sonographers. Items include demographic information, section on knowledge of prevention and management of WMSDs. The study showed the same result 26(50%) for those who exercise and those who do not exercise in between examination. 29(55.8%) of the respondents do not use height adjustable couch during scanning, 40(76.9%) use finger grip to hold the transducer while 23(12%) do not use finger grip. Majority 41(78%)of the respondents change scanning position between examinations while 22(11%) do not change scanning position between examinations. 48(25%) of the respondents carry out the same examination always while 51(27%) responded no.32(61%) respondents take short but frequent breaks from scanning while 38(20%) did not take breaks. 39(75%) of sonographers take responsibility to address personal work load while 13(25%) do not address personal work load. Sonographers have good knowledge of the prevention and management of WMSDs, however, general awareness and regular trainings are recommended in order to avoid occurrence.
- ItemOpen AccessComposition and Abundance of Odonates at Alatori Stream South-West, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adu, B.W; Kemabonta, K.A; Ogbogu, S.SDragonflies and damselflies (Odonata) are sensitive to human disturbance both as adults that are on wings and as larvae that are aquatic. This attribute suggests their usage as assessment tool for determination of human disturbance within the ecosystem. Alatori stream in Akure Forest Reserve was studied from May 2008 to April 2010 in order to determine the water quality and abundance of Odonata species of the stream. Adults and larvae specimens were sampled throughout the sampling period. A total of 767 adult specimens and 108 larvae were collected. Only 45.4% of the penultimate and ultimate larvae collected eclosed (emerged) to teneral adults. The composition of Odonata families occurring at the stream showed that Libellulidae was the highest (281) followed by Chlorocyphidae (158) while the lowest was Megapodagrionidae (5). The occurrence of members of the families Megapodagrionidae, Chlorocyphidae and Calopterigididae indicates that the stream ecosystem can sustain species with narrow niches. Seven physico-chemical variables: temperature (water and ambient), pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, water current velocity and depth of the stream were examined and analysed. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) result revealed that conductivity, temperature and water depth played a major role in determining the community structure of odonate assemblage in the stream. The mean (±) standard deviation of electrical conductivity (184.25 ± 6.37μS/cm) of the water was indicative of an unpolluted freshwater system with stable habitat structure. The study suggests that the water quality of Alatori stream is healthy and can sustain Odonata and other fauna within the ecosystem.
- ItemOpen AccessDominant Pollen in Honey Samples from Four Beehives in Abeokuta, Southwest, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adekanmbi, H.O; Alebiosu, O.SIn the quest to examine the preferentially foraged pollen by honey bees in Abeokuta, Nigeria, a palynological study was conducted on honey samples from four bee farms; Owudekudu, Olorunda, Agbede and Odeda, all situated within Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. Honey samples were collected and subjected to acetolysis, followed by slide preparation and microscopy of the treated samples. Twelve pollen types were recovered from the four honey samples and some of these pollen are common to the four honeys. A classification method for expressing pollen frequency class was adopted: Very frequent (Over 45%), Frequent (16-45%), Rare (3-15%) and Sporadic (Less than 3%). The most abundantly recovered pollen grains in the four locations were those of Berlinia grandiflora, Albizia sp., Bombax buonopozense, Asteraceae and Fabaceae. Pollen of Elaeis guineensis, Rutaceae, Amaranthaceae, Combretaceae/Melastomaceae, Senna sp., Poaceae and Convolvulaceae were also recovered. The results of this study indicate that these plants were preferentially foraged by honey bees in the sample locations. This might have been influenced by more suitable nutritional contents of these pollen grains produced by their parent plants, although yet to be investigated. Hence, there is need for an appropriate conservation strategy of these plants from destructive human activities such as indiscriminate felling of trees and forest clearing for agricultural and urban developmental projects. The results from this work have established these plants as preferential to bee forage in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessClient Satisfaction and Quality of Family Planning Services: a Comparative Study of Public and Private Facilities in Lagos, Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Udom, C.F; Okafor, I.P; Abiola, A.OClient satisfaction and quality of care of family planning services affect contraceptive uptake and continued usage of method. The study aimed to determine and compare client satisfaction with quality of family planning services between public and private health facilities in an urban area of Lagos, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was carried out among consecutively recruited 240 women accessing family planning services in July 2013 at public and private health facilities (120 per facility). Data collection was done with exit interview, client-provider interaction and facility audit questionnaires from measure evaluation. Data was analyzed with epi-info and level of significance was set at 5% (p<0.05). Major findings include: (public vs private) mean age was 35.5±5.5 years vs 37.9±7.5 years; mean waiting time (minutes), 24.8±11.7 vs 48.7±17.8 (p<0.001). Statistically significant differences were observed in perceived long waiting time, (12.5%, 15/120) vs (30%, 36/120) (p<0.001); active participation, (95.8%, 115/120) vs (100%, 120/120) (p=0.020); client received method of choice, (66.3%, 56/80) vs (72.3, 60/83) (p=0.010). Overall, private provider clients were better satisfied with services (93%, 112/120) than clients in the public facility (88%, 105/120) (p <0.001). The private provider clients were better satisfied with services. Training of public providers on interpersonal relationship, counseling and communication skills is recommended. Private providers should implement strategies to reduce waiting time.
- ItemOpen AccessScreening for Eating Disorders among Undergraduate Students in Two Nigerian Higher Institutions(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Aina, O.F; Olagunju, A.T; Akinbode, A.A; Suleiman, T.FBackground: Eating disorders are important psychopathologies with associated physical/ mental health complications and mortality. They are common problems in the Western world; however, with only few studies from the Southern part of Africa, they are believed to be rare in the continent, hence this study. Methods: The study was carried out among selected undergraduates of two higher institutions in Lagos, Nigeria. They were administered with Socio-demographic Questionnaire and Eating Attitudes Test- 26-item version (EAT-26). Results: A total of 1054 students in the two institutions were studied, and were made up of 55.6% males and 44.4% females; with mean age of 21.38±3.66 years. The anthropometric indices of the subjects were mean weight of 63.29±11.14kg, mean height was 1.69±0.09 metres, and mean body mass index (BMI) of 22.17±3.58. On assessment with EAT-26, 152 (15.3%) scored ≥20 that is screened positive for eating disorders (N=995). Higher percentage of females screened positive for eating disorders compared to the males with significant difference of X2=19.47 and p=0.000. Conclusion: About one-sixth of the subjects screened positive for eating disorder, which is quite important for our environment erroneously believed to lack cases of eating disorders. Also as obtained in the Western world, eating disorders are more prevalent among the females. With limitation of screening instrument, it is advocated for diagnostic instruments to be employed in future studies.
- ItemOpen AccessMicrobial Quality of Public Swimming Pools in Lagos(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Omotayo, A.E; Oladipo, T.J; Adesida, S.A; Akinyemi, T.H; Adeogun, O.O; Amund, O.OThe microbial quality of some public swimming pools in Lagos State, Nigeria was investigated to determine possible risks of infections to swimmers. Ten swimming pools (Pools A-J) were investigated for their microbial and physico-chemical qualities. The pH of the pools ranged from 5.24-8.71 and the residual chlorine ranged from 0.01-0.07. Water samples from the pools were cultured on differential and selective media. The microbial loads varied with different swimming pools. The fungal population ranged from 0 - 4.7×104 cfu ml-1, while the bacterial population ranged from 0 - 1.12 x 105cfu ml-1. Eight bacterial isolates were obtained and identified using Microbact 24E kit. Fungal isolates (6) were identified by microscopy, Gram’s staining and chloramphenicol test. The isolates include Aeromonas hydrophila (4), Burkolderia pseudomallei (2), Serratia marcescens (1), Enterobacter agglomerans (1), Candida albicans (3), Saccharomyces spp. (2) and Aspergillus flavus (1). Antifungal sensitivity test showed 50% susceptibility to nystatin and 50% resistance to voriconazole, while the bacteria were resistant to most of the antibiotic tested. The Multiple Antibiotics Resistance (MAR) index for the isolates ranged from 0.125 to 1.000. The feedback from the questionnaires administered, showed that unhygienic practices and maintenance of pools could contribute to low levels of swimming pool water quality. The high microbial loads and the types of microorganisms isolated from the pools show that contaminated swimming pools can constitute a serious public health hazard to the users.
- ItemOpen AccessMechanical and Microstructural Evaluation of Plastically Deformed Brass(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Bodude, M.A; Momohjimoh, I; Nnaji, R.NThe mechanical properties and microstructure of Cu-30.6wt% Zn alloys containing 0.01wt% lead has been investigated. The brass alloy was cast and then cold rolled at various percentage reductions: 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40% followed by stress relieving annealed at 450ᵒC. Hardness UTS and impact toughness values evaluated at every stage of reduction. The results showed that the strength, hardness and impact energy all increase with increase percentage reduction. Finally, the light optical microscope images of the samples were taken and the results obtained correlate with the mechanical properties.
- ItemOpen AccessTable of Content(2016) Journal of Medicine, Science & Technology
- ItemOpen AccessModelling and Analysis of Three Phase Controlled Rectifiers using Pivotal Function Technique(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Kalunta, F.O; Akinbulire, T.O; Okafor, F.NThis paper describes the extension of pivotal function approach to deriving the mathematical representation of the input current of a controlled three phase bridge rectifier circuit. The basis is that a single thyristor and its associated rectifier circuits could be modelled as a pivotal function which relates the input voltage and current with load resistance. In the conduction region the thyristor behaves as a double P-N junction diode, which implies that it could be modelled as a pivotal function with the conduction interval controlled by a gate firing pulse. On this projection is based the development of a thyristor controlled rectifier model in this paper beginning with the mathematical expression of a thyristor current. The model equation was derived in a manner as to include or exclude the effect of source inductance for flexible applications. Considering the effect of source inductance resulted in a non-linear second order ordinary differential equation with the inverse pivotal function as the second coefficient. The model was also modified to cater for cases involving unbalanced three phase supply voltages. Simulation result on the studied circuit based on the derived model expression compared with its counterpart from Simpower simulation has established that the pivotal function technique reflects properly the regulating behavior of a thyristor. The derived model was deployed in analyzing the waveforms and harmonic profile of the distorted input current of the studied circuit at different firing angles. The result has established that the derived model will further enhance the analysis of controlled rectifiers in resonance studies.
- ItemOpen AccessDeformation Behaviour of Led and Hiled Cured Dental Resin Microhybrid and Nanofilled Composites(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adeleye, O.A; Fakinlede, O.A; Ajiboye, J.S; Adegbulugbe, I.CThe deformation behavior of commercial microhybridresin based composite (20/20 composite) and nanofilled composite (Light Cured Universal Composite) cured with the conventional Light Emitting Diode (LED) and exponential Light Emitting Diode (HiLED) under various loading condition have been investigated. Deformation of restorations such as shrinkage and shearing from curing and mastication have been a major concern for clinicians because of void and crack formations in restored tooth structure which affects the mechanical properties of the resin composites. Samples of microhybridresin based composite (20/20 composite) and nanofilled composite (Light Cured Universal Composite) were molded with copper foil molds with standard dimension 2 x 2.5 x 8mm, photo-cured by both conventional Light Emitting Diode (LED) and exponential Light Emitting Diode (HiLED) and then tested on the Electro Force 3200 for their deformation behavior and mechanical properties. Effects of variation of strain rate and curing time were also investigated. The results showed that, out of the four groups of samples studied, microhybridresin based composite (20/20 composite) cured with exponential Light Emitting Diode (HiLED) exhibited highest tensile strength of 28 MPa. The loading and unloading of the samples exhibited hysteresis responses and path dependence nonlinear behavior. At stress values less than 4 MPa, rate dependent recoverable (viscoelasticity) deformation was observed in all the four groups of samples but at stress values beyond 4 MPa rate dependent irrecoverable (viscoplasticity) deformation was observed. Finally, it was observed that increasing curing time leads to increasing tensile strength for materials cured by both methods.
- ItemOpen AccessEvaluation of the Phytochemicals, Mineral Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of the Ethanol Extract of Baphia Nitida(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Akande, I.S; Fasheun, D; Shekoni, O.ABaphia nitida (camwood) is a widely distributed plant most commonly found in the interior and coastal regions of tropical Africa. Known by diverse local names across Africa, extracts from its stem, leaves and roots have been found to possess several medicinal values. This study was designed to investigate the phytochemical constituents, mineral elements composition and antioxidant properties of the ethanol extract of Baphia nitida leaves. Baphia nitida leaves was identified at the herbarium unit of Botany Department, University of Lagos with herbarium number: LUH 5614. The ethanol extract was screened for the presence of phytochemicals, antioxidant assays were carried out using DPPH scavenging activity and free radical antioxidant power and the mineral content was determined using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). Phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, steroids, reducing sugar, glycosides, phlobotannins, terpenoids, flavonoids and alkaloids. There was high reducing power and it inhibited 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), indicating its antioxidant activity. Minerals detected include calcium, potassium, sodium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, zinc and cobalt. These were in varying concentrations with iron having the highest concentration and cobalt the lowest. The analysis shows that Baphia nitida is a promising herbal remedy with strong antioxidant property.