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- ItemOpen AccessPublic Perception of Cross infection Control in Dentistry in Nigeria(FDI/World Dental Press, 2005) Sofola, O.O; Uti, O.G; Onigbinde, O.OObjectives: To assess the perception of patients on the use of gloves and facemasks in dental practice, methods of sterilisation and the risk of cross-infection. Methods: Questionnaire survey of patients attending two teaching hospitals and a private dental clinic in Lagos, Nigeria. Results: 228 respondents returned the questionnaires. Nearly all (98.6%) regarded the use of gloves as necessary and 189 (82.9%) did not mind the use of gloves, only 129 (56.6%) felt the facemask was necessary although 132 (57.9%) did not mind its use. More than half of the respondents (54%) felt they could contract an infection in the dental clinic and 43% of them identified HIV as a risk. This response was significantly affected by educational status (p<0.05). 140 patients (61.4%) would not attend a clinic if they knew that HIV patients were treated there. Females were significantly more unwilling to attend (p<0.05). Conclusion: While this survey shows a high level of acceptance of the use of gloves, there is a glaring lack of knowledge and acceptance of the use of the facemask indicating a need for more effective public enlightenment on the use of barrier methods. It also reveals a great deal of fear for HIV among Nigerians.
- ItemOpen AccessPerceived sources of stress in Nigerian dental students(Blackwell Munksgaard. European Journal of Dental Education, 2006) Sofola, OO; Jeboda, SOAbstract The objective of this study was to identify sources of stress among dental students at the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria. A modified Dental Environment Stress (DES) questionnaire was used to study the 137 students in years 3–6, of which 105 (76.6%) responded. Results show that the year 5 students indicated the highest level of stress overall on items relating to pre-clinical training with 21 (70%) recording aggregate DES score over the cut-off point for high stress. For clinical items, nearly all the students – 27(90%) of year 5 and 24 (100%) of year 6 recorded aggregates over the cut-off point. The most important stressors were those related to the lack of provision of a wellsupported system of dental education in Nigeria in terms of availability of materials for clinical training and study materials. There were no significant differences in stress perception between genders. However, students who chose Medicine as their first choice for admission with Dentistry as an alternative experienced significantly higher overall mean and higher mean scores for most items. In conclusion, it appears there is a need to improve support for dental education in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessOccupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens and Management of Exposure Incidents in Nigerian Dental Schools(Journal of Dental Education, 2007) Sofola, OO; Folayan, MO; Denloye, OO; Okeigbemen, SAThe goal of this study was to determine the frequency of occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens amongst Nigerian clinical dental students, their HBV vaccination status, and reporting practices. A cross-sectional study of all clinical dental students in the four Nigerian dental schools was carried out by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire that asked questions on demography, number and type of exposure, management of the exposures, personal protection against cross infection, and the reporting of such exposures. One hundred and fifty-three students responded (response rate of 84.5 percent). Only thirty-three (37.9 percent) were fully vaccinated against HBV. Ninety (58.8 percent) of the students have had at least one occupational exposure. There was no significantly associated difference between sex, age, location of school, and exposure. Most of the exposures (44.4 percent) occurred in association with manual tooth cleaning. There was inadequate protection of the eyes. None of the exposures were formally reported. It is the responsibility of training institutions to ensure the safety of the students by mandatory HBV vaccination prior to exposure and adequate training in work safety. Written policies and procedures should be developed and made easily accessible to all workers to facilitate prompt reporting and management of all occupational exposures
- ItemOpen AccessDoes exposure to dental education change the perceptions of Nigerian students to dentistry as a profession?(Blackwell Munksgaard. European Journal of Dental Education, 2008) Sofola, OO; Uti, OG; Akpene, OOAim: To assess any effect of exposure to dental education and training on the perception and acceptance of dentistry by dental students at a Nigerian dental school. Participants and methods: The study was conducted by means of an anonymous self-administered questionnaire distributed to second-, fifth- and sixth-year dental students at the College of Medicine, University of Lagos. Participation was voluntary and 67 students agreed to participate in the study. Majority (51%) were aged between 24 and 27 years. The questionnaire contained questions on demography, preferred choice of course on admission, attempts at change of course, their present perception to dentistry and future dental practice. Result: Over 90% of them were admitted through the Joint admission and matriculation board and 40 (60%) chose Medicine as their first course choice. Of the 40, 18 had attempted a change of course and eight were still interested in a career change (four were in the fifth year). Most of the change in attitude occurred in fourth year. Sixty (90%) intend to practice dentistry but 38 (63%) of these would like to practice outside Nigeria. Conclusion: Exposure to dental training appears to improve students’ perception about dental practice but uncertainty about future prospects in Nigeria may lead to brain drain in the dental profession.
- ItemOpen AccessPatient Satisfaction: A Survey of Dental Outpatients at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria(Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine, 2009-01) Orenuga, O.O; Sofola, O.O; Uti, O.GBackground: Patient satisfaction with dental services has received minimal attention in Nigeria. Quality of service is however, an integral part of any business. The study assessed dental outpatients’ satisfaction with oral health care delivery a tertiary institution in Nigeria. The perceptions of the oral health care provider and suggestions that will improve service delivery were also obtained from these consumers. Methods: A modified Dental Satisfaction Questionnaire (DSQ) was used to assess the patients. An aggregate score was also calculated for each respondent for all variables tested under the five items on dental patient satisfaction. The highest possible score was 76, based on the number of items assessed. The cut off point for satisfaction was set at 38. Results: Three hundred patients participated in the study. The items with the top three scores were dentist-patient relationship (respect/listen), rapport and infection control with mean scores of 3.5, 3.4, and 3.3 respectively. The range for the aggregate score for level of satisfaction was 16-68. High level of satisfaction reported in 159 (53%) of the respondents and low level in 141 (47%). Dissatisfaction was expressed with regards to the infrastructure, electricity/regular supply of water and being treated by unsupervised students in 85.7%, 59.5% and 89% respectively. Conclusions:The overall high level of satisfaction was related to the communication skills and rapport of staff with the patients. There is an urgent need for improvement on infrastructure and provision of a steady supply of water and electricity
- ItemOpen AccessSmoking Cessation Counseling in Dentistry: Attitudes of Nigerian Dentists and Dental Students(Journal of Dental Education, 2011) Uti, O.G; Sofola, O.OAbstract: The study was aimed at assessing the awareness, attitude, practices, willingness, and perceived barriers of dental students and dentists in Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, in relation to smoking cessation in the dental care setting. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire that contained questions relating to attitudes, views, and perceived barriers to smoking cessation activities in the dental clinic was hand-delivered to all dentists and clinical dental students in 2007. One hundred and thirty-six respondents took part in the study (response rate=81.9 percent). Although 95 percent of the respondents believed that smoking affects the dental management of the patient, only 65 percent always ask their patients about their smoking habits, and only 30 percent have heard about smoking cessation programs. A significantly higher proportion of students always ask patients about their smoking habits compared with dentists (p=0.0017). Also, a significantly higher proportion of dentists (97 percent) advised their patients against tobacco use compared with 77 percent of students (p=0.0000). Only 2 percent and 3 percent agreed that it is their professional responsibility to educate or encourage patients to quit smoking, respectively. Also, 98 percent strongly disagreed that it is within the scope of dental practice to ask about tobacco use, and 86 percent disagreed that tobacco counseling can be effective in helping patients quit tobacco use. Perceived barriers reported were lack of time (88 percent), lack of necessary materials (81 percent), and lack of knowledge of smoking cessation (74 percent). However, 81 percent of the respondents said they are willing to undergo training in tobacco use cessation. Since most of the dentists and dental students had poor attitudes and negative perceptions of smoking cessation activities, possibly due to lack of training and resources to carry it out in the clinics, there is need to include smoking cessation training in the dental curriculum in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessAn appraisal of the oral health care system in Nigeria(FDI World Dental Federation, 2012) Adeniyi, AA; Sofola, OO; Kalliecharan, RVObjectives: This study aimed to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the oral health care system in Nigeria and to outline broad policy options for strengthening the system. Methods: A critical appraisal of the oral health care system in Nigeria was conducted. The Maxwell criteria were used to assess performance. Results: There has been some progress and growth in the oral health care system in Nigeria. However, it is clear that the system falls short on many desirable attributes. The system is neither effective nor efficient and the resources available are grossly inadequate and are overstretched in many areas. The oral health care system is unresponsive to the needs of the populace and there is little stewardship of the system. Conclusions: Urgent action in the Nigerian oral health care system is required on the part of all stakeholders. The first step should involve the provision of adequate resources for the immediate implementation of the national oral health policy. There is also a need for more research on oral health-related issues in the country. Efforts towards improving the system must be properly coordinated by the Federal Ministry of Health and involve all stakeholders in the sector in order to achieve success.
- ItemOpen AccessCaries incidence in a cohort of primary school students in Lagos State, Nigeria followed up over a 3 years period(European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry, 2012) Folayan, MO; Sofola, OO; Oginni, ABAim: To describe the progression of dental caries in the pupils who had access to an education intervention programme over a three years period. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective cohort study. METHODS: This was a school-based based study consisting of 251 children aged 2-10 years old attending three primary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria. Baseline and exit dental examinations were conducted. Study exit examination was conducted 3 years after the baseline. The deft and DMFT index was used to assess caries severity. The key outcome measure recorded in the study was the development of a new cavities in any of the previously caries-free teeth. The presence or absence of caries was represented by the change in deft and or DMFT status. STATISTICS: In the analyses, the incidence of new cavities was recorded at both the person and tooth levels. Incidence rates for the development of new caries were calculated for all children who: • were caries-free at recruitment • had caries at recruitment • were caries-free at recruitment but developed caries during follow up. Relative risk (RR) analysis was also computed for caries-risk estimation. RESULTS: The caries incidence for the study cohort was 9.9%. About 11.0% of children who were caries free at inception of the study developed caries three years after. The cumulative incidence of caries for the cohort of children who were caries free at the commencement of the study was 105 new cases per 1000 persons. Of the 40 children who had caries at the inception of the study, 21 (52.5%) developed new caries lesion. The cumulative incidence of caries for the cohort of children who had caries at the commencement of the study was 525 new cases per 1000 persons. The relative risk of developing caries over a three years period was significantly higher (RR=4.99; 95% CI = 2.88 - 8.64; p< 0.001) in those who had caries at baseline than those who were caries-free at baseline. Caries severity remained stable over the 3 years period. CONCLUSIONS: Caries incidence and severity was low for the study cohort. The relative risk of developing new caries lesion was significantly higher in those with caries when compared with those without caries.
- ItemOpen AccessDescriptors of permanent teeth with cariously exposed pulp in patients presenting at a Nigerian hospital(Acta Odontological Scandinavica, 2013) Ajayi, Yetunde Olusola; Sofola, Oyinkansola OlulolaAim. To describe the pattern of presentation of carious permanent teeth with pulp exposure and to determine factors associated with choice of treatment for such teeth. Materials and methods. All patients presenting at the oral diagnosis clinic of Lagos University Teaching Hospital Dental centre between January 2009 and June 2009 were examined and those with carious lesion involving the pulp were included in the study. The history and character of pain from teeth, extent of tooth structure lost, proposed treatment and reason for proposed treatment was recorded. Results. The tooth most affected by pulp exposure due to caries is the lower first molar (17.5%). Extraction was the treatment of choice for many patients due to the following reasons: obliterated root canals (30%), patients’ preference (30%) and non-restorable teeth (22%). Conclusion. Extraction was the predominant treatment chosen for cariously exposed permanent teeth due to the condition of the tooth.
- ItemOpen AccessThe effectiveness of an oral health care training workshop for school teachers: a pilot study(Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine, 2013) DEDEKE, AA; OSUH, ME; LAWAL, FB; IBIYEMI, OO; BANKOLE, OO; DENLOYE, O; TAIWO, JO; OKE, GABackground: School teachers play key roles in imparting appropriate and up-to-date knowledge to pupils and students. However, most teachers in developing countries like Nigeria have poor knowledge and motivation about oral health which may be due to inadequate training in the area of oral health. This might be one of the reasons for the poor oral hygiene among them and their students. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of an oral health care training programme organized for teachers in Eruwa, Oyo state, Nigeria. Methods: An intervention study was conducted among 40 school teachers who attended a two day oral health training workshop at Eruwa, headquarters of Ibarapa East Local Government Area. Training methods included lectures and demonstrations on aetiology, clinical features, treatment and prevention of common oral diseases. Pre-and post-evaluation written tests were administered to the participants to assess the effectiveness of the training. The knowledge scores were rated as poor, fair and good knowledge scoring< 50.0%, 50.0-60.0% and> 60.0% respectively. Frequencies, percentages and means of relevant variables were generated. Paired t-test was used to compare means at P< 0.05. Result: The mean age of the teachers was 40.13±7.24 years. There were 16 (40.0%) males and 24 (60.0%) females. Twenty (50.0%) of the participants had poor pre-training knowledge as compared to 7 (17.5%) after the training. Thirteen (32.5%) had fair pre-training knowledge as compared to 17 (42.5%) post training. Only (2.5%) of the participants had good pre-training knowledge as compared to 18 (45.0%) post training.
- ItemOpen AccessDeterminants of preventive oral health behaviour among senior dental students in Nigeria(BMC ORAL HEALTH, 2013) Folayan, M.O; Khami, M.R; Folaranmi, N; Popoola, B.O; Sofola, O.O; Ligali, T.O; Esan, A.O; Orenuga, O.OBackground: To study the association between oral health behaviour of senior dental students in Nigeria and their gender, age, knowledge of preventive care, and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Methods: Questionnaires were administered to 179 senior dental students in the six dental schools in Nigeria. The questionnaire obtained information on age, gender, oral self-care, knowledge of preventive dental care and attitudes towards preventive dentistry. Attending a dental clinic for check-up by a dentist or a classmate within the last year was defined as preventive care use. Students who performed oral self-care and attended dental clinic for check-ups were noted to have complied with recommended oral self-care. Chi-square test and binary logistic regression models were used for statistical analyses. Results: More male respondents agreed that the use of fluoride toothpaste was more important than the tooth brushing technique for caries prevention (P < 0.001). While the use of dental floss was very low (7.3%), more females were more likely to report using dental floss (p=0.03). Older students were also more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care (p<0.001). In binary regression models, respondents who were younger (p=0.04) and those with higher knowledge of preventive dental care (p=0.008) were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a day. Conclusion: Gender differences in the awareness of the superiority of using fluoridated toothpaste over brushing in caries prevention; and in the use of dental floss were observed. While older students were more likely to comply with recommended oral self-care measures, younger students with good knowledge of preventive dental care were more likely to consume sugary snacks less than once a daY
- ItemOpen AccessORAL HEALTH QUALITY OF LIFE IN A NIGERIAN UNIVERSITY UNDERGRADUATE POPULATION(West African College of Surgeons, 2014) Isiekwe, G.I; Onigbogi, O.O; Olatosi, O.O; Sofola, O.OABSTRACT Introduction:Oral health related quality of life is utilized in health services research to examine trends in oral health and population-based needs assessment. Objective: To assess both the generic and orthodontic specific aspects of the Oral health-related quality of life of a University undergraduate population. Methodology: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out among 420 undergraduate students, aged 18-30years old, attending the University of Lagos, Nigeria. The data collection was carried out through oral interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Two Oral health related quality of life instruments were used (1) A generic scale:the Shortened version of the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) and (2) A condition specific scale: the Psychosocial impact of dental aesthetics questionnaire (PIDAQ). Data analysis was carried out using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: With respect to the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14) scale, the overall mean score recorded by the students was 10.43+7.85. The physical pain subscale recorded the highest impact with 93.3%, while the least impact was recorded in the handicap subscale, with 29.9%. The Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) scales revealed significant gender differences, with the subscales of 'social impact', psychological impact' and 'aesthetic concern' recording low mean subscale values. Conclusion: The mean Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14)score of the students(10.43 + 7.85) in thisstudy reflects that the oral health status of most of the students did not significantly affect their Oral health-related quality of life. However,thephysicalpaindomainwasthemostseverelyaffectedaspectoftheirOralhealth-relatedqualityoflife.The PsychosocialImpactofDentalAesthetics(PIDAQ) scalescoresrecordedsignificantgenderdifferences.
- ItemOpen AccessStudy motives, career choices and interest in paediatric dentistry among final year dental students in Nigeria(BMC Medical Education, 2014) Folayan, M.O; Sofola, O.O; Khami, M.R; Esan, A.O; Popoola, B.O; Orenuga, O.O; Folaranmi, N; Ligali, T.; Philips, ABackground: Students’ motives for studying Dentistry have been a subject of interest for years because of the potential for understanding the psychological makeup and subsequent job satisfaction for the dentist. It is also useful in identifying expectations of the profession. This study therefore tried to identify study motives and career preferences of dental students especially with respect to the practice of paediatric dentistry. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered questionnaire. The final year students in six dental schools in Nigeria were required to fill the questionnaire. Students were asked to rank their motives and career preferences on a Likert like scale with points ranging from 0–5 where 0 represented a factor that had no influence on their decision and 5 represented a very influential factor. The underlying dimensions for study motives, career preference, impression about and motive for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were identified using factor analysis. Results: One hundred and seventy nine of 223 students (80.3%) participated in this study. Motives for the practice of dentistry included characteristics of the profession, altruism and intellectual challenges, existence of artistic theme in dentistry and parent’s recommendation. Overall, 67.1% of respondents indicated interest in postgraduate studies and 50.8% were interested in paediatric dentistry practice. The main motives for showing interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry were ‘personal interest, professional interest and interest of significant others in children’, and ‘family influence’. Significantly more males than females were interested in the practice of paediatric dentistry though the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry did not differ significantly by sex or age. Conclusion: The non-significant sex difference in the motives for interest in the practice of paediatric dentistry is a possible reflection of changes in strong cultural themes in the motives for career choices in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessChanges in the prevalence of dental caries in primary school children in Lagos State, Nigeria(Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 2014) Sofola, OO; Folayan, MO; Oginni, ABObjectives: To evaluate the changes in the prevalence of dental caries in Lagos State over a 3 years period and the role of age, sex, and playing in the changes observed. Materials and Methods: Three primary schools in Lagos State, Nigeria were randomly selected for the study. Six hundred and thirty‑three children age 2-12 years, were examined for caries in 2000 while 513 children were examined in 2003. The prevalence of tooth decay and the prevalence of untreated tooth decay were calculated for the two years, that is, 2000 and 2003. Also the degree of unmet treatment need among the population with caries experience was measured. Differences in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the primary and permanent dentition were assessed. Results: Approximately 18% of children had untreated tooth decay in their primary dentition in 2003: A 26.1% increase from 2000. About 12.0% of the decay, extracted, and filled teeth (deft) index was seen with decayed teeth in 2000 and 16.6% in 2003. Extracted primary teeth decreased from 2.5% in 2000 to 1.5% in 2003. The change in mean deft between 2000 (0.42) and 2003 (0.47) was 11.9%. Over the study period, the overall reduction in the prevalence of dental caries was 34.8% in the permanent dentition. The decline was larger among children aged 5-9 years (62.1%) and among females (75%). Conclusion: The study showed no overall changes in caries severity but a decrease in caries prevalence in the permanent dentition over the study period. The largest decline in caries prevalence in the permanent dentition was observed in children aged 5-9 years and females. On the contrary, there was an increase in the caries prevalence in the primary dentition.
- ItemOpen AccessProgramme guidelines for promoting good oral health for children in Nigeria: a position paper(BMC Oral Health, 2014) Folayan, MO; Adeniyi, A.A; Chukwumah, N.M; Onyejaka, N; Esan, A.O; Sofola, O.O; Orenuga, O.OBackground: The objective of this paper is to draw attention to the oral health needs of children in Nigeria, and promote the use of appropriate interventions for disease prevention in the population. It also evaluates the value of the ongoing twice-daily tooth brushing campaign, which focuses on promoting good periodontal health and its relevance for children in Nigeria. Discussion: The main oral health burden for children in Nigeria is untreated dental caries, attributable to low utilization of oral health facilities. While there is a strong association between oral hygiene status and caries occurrence, no research had established an association between frequency of tooth brushing and caries in children in Nigeria. Prevalence of caries and gingivitis is low, despite the fact that a majority of children brush once a day and most of them have fair oral hygiene. Campaigns that promote twice daily brushing to prevent chronic periodontitis in children are not driven by evidences supporting the local epidemic, and therefore cannot be considered as efficient use of the limited resources available. Summary: Existing evidences show that the main oral health need of children in Nigeria is the management of untreated caries. Promoting the treatment of caries should be the primary focus of oral health programmes for children in Nigeria, as this would reduce further risks of developing new carious lesions. Public health campaigns should focus efforts at creating demand for oral health care services, for both preventive and curative purposes.
- ItemOpen AccessImpact of an educational intervention on smoking counseling practice among Nigerian dentists and dental students(Nigeria Journal of Clinical Practice, 2014) Uti, O.G; Sofola, O.OIntroduction: Oral health professionals are important in smoking cessation and prevention as their role is very crucial given the impact of smoking on oral health. Therefore, dental professionals need adequate education in tobacco use prevention and cessation skills to increase their confidence and be able to help patients to quit smoking. This study was aimed at determining the impact of an educational intervention on the attitudes, willingness, and perceived barriers of a group of Nigerian dental students and dentists to smoking cessation counseling in the dental clinic. Methods: A self‑administered questionnaire‑based study was conducted in September 2007 at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idi Araba, Lagos. This was followed by a series of lectures and seminars using the brief intervention strategies for patients willing to quit using the Ask, Advise, Assess, Assist, and Arrange of cessation. A repeat study was conducted in January 2009 using the same questionnaire. Post intervention attitudes were significantly improved over pre intervention values for each parameter used in the assessment. Results: A significantly higher proportion of the respondents were interested in providing cessation services after the intervention (P = 0.00002). Most (83.1%) of the respondents were willing to undergo training with a slight increase in the post intervention group from 80.9% to 86%. All the reported barriers were significantly reduced after the intervention (P = 0.000). Conclusion: This study has shown that educational interventions such as didactic instructions and practical training in tobacco use cessation can help to increase the willingness, confidence, and ability to provide information, during encounters with patients.
- ItemOpen AccessImpact of Oral Health Education and Oral Prophylaxis on Quality of life of Controlled Diabetic Patients in Lasuth(Journal of Oral Hygiene and Health, 2015) Oyapero, A.I; Adeniyi, A.A; Sofola, O.O; Ogbera, A.ODiabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by hyperglycaemia. In the oral cavity, diabetes mellitus may lead to salivary dysfunction, increased susceptibility of oral tissues to trauma and periodontal disease. There is a possibility that oral health education and oral prophylaxis may have a positive impact on the OHRQOL of diabetic patients. The purpose of this study therefore, was to evaluate the impact of Oral Health Education and oral prophylaxis on the OHRQOL of diabetic patients at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja (LASUTH) using the Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14). The study subjects had an interviewer-administered questionnaire employed to obtain information on their biodata, baseline OHIP-14 scores and periodontal/glycaemic parameters. They then received oral prophylaxis and oral health education and were reviewed at one, three and six months respectively. After 6 months, the periodontal and glycaemic parameters of the subjects were recorded again and the OHIP-14 form was used to evaluate the impact of the interventions on their OHRQOL. At baseline, subjects reported moderate and high impacts on their quality of life in the sub-domains of discomfort, pain, self-consciousness and embarrassment. The prevalence of moderate and severe periodontitis in this study population was 37.5%. At the 6 months review, there was a significant reduction in the Fasting Blood Sugar and 2 hours Post Prandial glucose of the subject was compared to baseline scores. There was also a significant mean reduction in the periodontal parameters and an improvement in the OHRQOL of the subjects. The greatest improvement in OHRQOL was in the subdomain of discomfort, pain, self-consciousness and embarrassment. This study demonstrated that oral prophylaxis and oral health education may result in an improvement in the OHRQOL of the diabetic subjects. Further studies using a randomized controlled trial design are however recommended to validate these findings
- ItemOpen AccessFindings from a study in a defined urban population in Southwestern Nigeria using the PUFA index(African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences, 2015) Dedeke, AA; Denloye, OO; Oke, GA
- ItemOpen AccessThe prevalence of early childhood caries and its associated risk factors among preschool children referred to a tertiary care institution(Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 2015) Olatosi, OO; Inem, V; Sofola, OO; Prakash, P; Sote, EOObjective: The aim was to determine the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and its association with infant feeding and oral health‑related behavior among preschool children aged 6–71 months in Lagos. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross‑sectional study in which 302 children aged 6–71 months were selected from four pediatric outpatient clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, breast and bottle feeding, birth weight of child and socioeconomic status of the family, from mothers of the children. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization criteria. Results: The prevalence of ECC among 302 children aged 6–71 months was 21.2% while the mean deft was 0.735. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the correlation of ECC with the associated risk factors. ECC was significantly higher in children who were bottle‑fed at night. Method of tooth cleaning other than using fluoridated toothpaste significantly increased the prevalence of ECC. Breastfeeding for duration of 3–6 months showed significantly lesser caries prevalence. Caries significantly increased with age. Conclusion: Early childhood caries is a multifactorial disease in which prolonged duration of breastfeeding, nocturnal bottle feeding, and use of cleaning methods other than fluoridated toothpaste are risk factors for ECC. Oral health promotion programs should be targeted at mothers, pediatricians, nurses, caretakers at day care centers and primary care health workers.
- ItemOpen AccessDental esthetics and oral health-related quality of life in young adults(American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, 2016) Isiekwe, G.I; Sofola, O.O; Onigbogi, O.O; Utomi, I.L; Sanu, O.O; daCosta, O.OIntroduction: Dental esthetics affects how people are perceived by society and how they perceive themselves, and this may also affect their oral health–related quality of life (OHRQoL). The aim of this study was to compare the impacts of self-perceived and normatively assessed dental esthetics on the OHRQoL of a young adult population. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving 375 undergraduate university students, aged 18 to 30 years old. Data collection was carried out through oral examinations and selfadministered questionnaires. Dental esthetics of the students was assessed using the esthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need. Two OHRQoL instruments were used: the shortened version of the Oral Health Impact Profile and the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire. Results: Statistically significant relationships (P \0.05) were recorded between both self-perceived and normatively assessed dental esthetics of the students, respectively, and 3 of the 4 Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire subscales: dental self-confidence (Kruskall-Wallis, P 5 0.000; P 5 0.000), psychological impact (P 5 0.003, P 5 0.047), and esthetic concern (P 5 0.006, P 5 0.003). The only exception was the social impact subscale, in which a significant relationship was recorded only with selfperceived dental esthetics (P 5 0.040). For the shortened version of the Oral Health Impact Profile scale, marked differences were also observed between the impacts recorded for both self-assessments and normative assessments, respectively, particularly for the psychological disability domain (Fisher exact test, P 5 0.021, P 5 0.000; P 5 0.064, P 5 0.096). Conclusions: Differences exist between the impacts of selfperceived and normatively assessed dental esthetics on the OHRQoL of young adults, particularly in the psychosocial domains. These differences should be considered in orthodontic treatment planning for young adult populations.