Browsing Volume 3, Issue 2 , 2016 by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessPower Sector Reform in Nigeria: Institutional Challenges and Prospects for Effective Performance(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Mmaduabuchi Okeke, G.S; Nwali, UThe power sector reform in Nigeria is yet to produce the desired result. The privatization of Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) which is the most integral and visible component of the reform has not improved power supply. Power outage is still persistent and there are no signs that power supply would improve in the nearest future. The failure of privatization to restore efficiency in the power sector and to engender constant electric power has cast doubts on the viability of the policy. This paper probes the failure of privatization to improve power delivery vis-à-vis the position of the privatization advocates who had argued that the transfer of ownership and management of the power sector from government to private investors would not only engender competition and efficiency, but also serve as the antidote to mismanagement and corruption that have been the recurring features of the sector over the years. Using secondary data and qualitative methodology, the paper argues that corruption and inefficiency have persisted in the post-privatization era, and that the power sector reform is deficient because it failed to take cognizance of certain institutional challenges such as the inability of the security agencies to stop vandalisation of power facilities like power cables, transformers, gas pipelines, etc, and acts of sabotage by vested interests like diesel and generator dealers. These challenges are as a result of institutional decay rather than the nature of ownership of the power sector. Hence, privatization alone cannot solve the prevailing power deficit crisis in the country. The paper also argues that the “success” story of deregulation in the telecom sector which is often cited by government officials and privatization advocates to advance privatization policy and which partly informed the privatization of PHCN, would not necessarily replicate in the power sector because of its inherent monopoly. Privatization of PHCN may have removed the national monopoly once enjoyed by NEPA and its successor - PHCN, but it has also created another kind of monopoly – private monopoly. That is to say, privatization only transformed the monopoly, it has not eliminated it. In conclusion, the paper submits that more than any other factor, dysfunctional institutions are mainly responsible for the persistent power crisis in the country. And until these institutional dysfunctions are properly tackled, they will continue to hinder efforts aimed at ensuring effective performance and improved power delivery, irrespective of whether or not the power sector is owned and managed by the government or private investors.
- ItemOpen AccessRepresentations of the City in the Early and Recent Nigerian Novel: People of the City and Alpha Song(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Akande, LMany of the studies on the growth of the Nigerian novel have given more attention to theme and characterisation, but little attention has been given to how Nigerian novelists depict the impact of the city on the moulding of the personality of urban dwellers. This article examines the transformation of the image of the city in two Nigerian novels. The novels are People of the City and Alpha Song. The study employs a postmodernist theory which privileges representation over reality. Cyprian Ekwensi and Maik Nwosu are purposively selected for the essay. The approach, eventually, will be to undertake a detailed content analysis of the two works. In the absence of the restraining influence of traditional society, city dwellers are generally culturally adrift, and with the prevalence of corruption and excessive individualism, social disintegration sets in. Early and recent Nigerian novelists portray the city differently in terms of communal, socio-political, economic and ideological orientations. While the early novel portrays the city as a place of entertainment and pleasure, free from the restraints of traditional society, a space where people’s expectations and potential could be realised, there is a more radical shift in the representation of the city in the recent novel. Hence, most characters in Alpha Song are engaged in new forms of communalism which globalise their identity.
- ItemOpen AccessMicro-insurance as a Socio-Economic Tool for National Transformation: A Legal Perspective(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Akaayar, V.SMicro-insurance is a financial strategy that recently evolved for the purpose of providing appropriate risk control mechanisms for persons involved in micro and small scale enterprises. In relation to national transformation, therefore, micro-insurance is a vital tool for the reduction of poverty and provision of equal economic opportunities for all citizens. Nevertheless, in Nigeria, there is lack of adequate literature that establishes the nexus between micro-insurance and national development. Although the National Insurance Commission (NAICOM) released the Guidelines for Micro-insurance Operation in Nigeria in 2013, it is uncertain whether the same is adequate in extracting the benefits of micro-insurance for national development. Consequently, this doctrinal study examines, from a legal perspective, the role of micro-insurance in national transformation. The paper demonstrates that micro-insurance not only serves as a catalyst for economic development, but also constitutes a novel social protection model for low-income persons. In order to strengthen the recent Guidelines in realizing the goals of micro-insurance for national transformation, this paper highlights some regulatory experience from South Africa and recommends the introduction of ‘Financial Inclusion Regulatory Structure’ (FIRS) as a reform strategy for Nigeria’s policy reformers.
- ItemOpen AccessTable of Content(2016) UNILAG Journal of Humanities
- ItemOpen AccessE-Waste in West Africa: Beyond Environmental and Health Risks(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Adejonwo-Osho, OThe urgency of the problem of electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) is evident worldwide; however, some countries in Sub-Saharan Africa are shouldering a disproportionate burden of a global problem without having the requisite capacity and the technology to deal with it. E- waste contains hazardous substances such as lead, mercury, and hazardous chemicals, such as brominated flame retardants, which are hazardous to the environment, humans, and flora and fauna, if not disposed of properly. The increasing desire to bridge the digital divide coupled with poverty in West African countries have encouraged the thriving market and demand for e-waste. This paper highlights the problem of e-waste in West Africa and the fact that the challenges and impacts of e-waste go beyond environmental and health risks. It emphasizes the myriad issues and challenges of regulating and governing the menace of e-waste in West Africa. The paper concludes with several recommendations on how West African countries, as a region and as individual countries, can address the challenges and menace of e-waste, while seeking for avenues to tap into its economic potentials.
- ItemOpen AccessForeign Direct Investments and Economic Growth of African Regions: A Comparative Study(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Igbinosa, S.O; Ikponmwosa, N.AThe paper examines the impact of Foreign Direct Investments (FDIs)on economic growth in the five regions of Africa, as well as identifies their respective drivers of growth. It employs the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) multiple regression analysis to examine the relative impact of Foreign Direct Investments, balance of payments, trade openness, technology and quality of labour force on economic growth in each of the five regions between 1980 and 2012. The study finds that foreign Direct Investments (FDIs) have no significant impact on economic growth in the five regions of Africa. The impact of FDI on growth is positive in Eastern, Middle and Western Africa but negative in Northern and Southern Africa. Similarly, there are differentials in the drivers of growth in the five regions. While trade openness is a negative driver of growth in all regions of Africa except in Northern Africa, both balance of payments and quality of labour force have mixed impacts on economic growth in Africa. In addition, technological progress impacted growth in Middle, Southern Africa and Western Africa but it appears that lack of it retarded growth in Eastern and Northern Africa. The study calls for policy reform frameworks that encourage and boost foreign Direct Investment flows to all regions of Africa, particularly Direct Investments in critical sectors of the economies, as well as check the negative effects of foreign Direct Investments. Furthermore, it recommends that regional economic blocks in Africa should be resuscitated and supported to develop and promote intra-Africa trade and Investments.
- ItemOpen AccessAn Examination of Manufacturing Sector Responses to Government Monetary and Trade Policies in the Nigerian Economy(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Musa, S; Olayinka, GThis study examines the impact of government policies on manufacturing sector with the aim of ascertaining the implication on the overall growth in Nigeria. Vector auto-regression (VAR) is employed to capture the contemporaneous responses of manufacturing value added to government such as monetary and trade policies. It is found that government policy on manufacturing is not significant in the long run. In the forecast error decomposition of manufacturing valued added (MVAD) relative to monetary policy, own shocks are major causes of fluctuation. Response of MVAD to policy is negative in the short-run but tends towards neutral in the long run. In other words, monetary and trade policies are ineffective to address manufacturing sector performance in Nigeria. Non-monetary policy factor such as stabilization of economic environment where manufacturing sector operates is suggested. In addition, supply side policies like subsidy and infrastructure may provide a more relevant answer.
- ItemOpen AccessMan-Must-Wack: Life and Career of University of Lagos Pioneer Vendor(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Akinyele, R.TThe newspaper has been a part of the intellectual culture of the University of Lagos since its inception in 1962. The history of the institution will therefore remain largely incomplete without the documentation of the activities of the vendor who dominated the landscape for more than twenty five years. This paper attempts to highlight the life and career of Mr. Philip Nwadigwu Abasiri, popularly known as Man-Must-Wack. His experience in Onitsha and Lagos in the 1940s illustrates some of the key issues in rural-urban drift which is still a major problem in Nigeria today. He started selling his newspapers in the University in 1964 and the business expanded with the evolution of the faculties. By the time he retired from active business in the late 1980s, he had planted two of his sons in the business. The paper also highlights how the personal characteristics and trade techniques that ensured his success as a vendor can be harnessed to reduce the rate of unemployment in Nigeria.
- ItemOpen AccessEffects of Play-Therapy on some Psychological Problems of Beggars’ Children in Destitute Center: Imo State-Nigeria(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Iwuagwu, J.N; Ughelu, J.NThe study investigates the effects of play-therapy method in solving some psychological problems of children in Destitute Centres in Imo State of Nigeria. The study is predicated on the risk of begging in Nigeria which has created a big void in the life of children of beggars. The study is restricted to the destitute centres in Imo State for proper control of the study. The children of beggars face many psychological problems such as anxiety, depression and obsessive behaviours to mention just a few. This study is guided by three research questions. The method of the study is quasi-experimental design, pre/post-test control group design. Multi-stage sample techniques are used to select 100 participants. The Intervention, Play-Therapy method is used for experimental group. The instruments for the study were Goldberg Depression Inventory by Goldberg (1993) and Beck Anxiety Inventory by Beck (1980). The statistical tool used is Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) at 0.05 level of significant. The result shows that play-therapy methods significantly reduces the level of anxiety and depression of children of beggars in destitute centres in Imo State.
- ItemOpen AccessA Qualitative Analysis of Child Rights Law Implementation in the Family Courts of Lagos State(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2016) Ogunniran, I; Nwanna, C.RThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the implementation of Child Rights Law (CRL) of Lagos State after its introduction in 2007; and to identify any challenges in the application of the justice provisions in the Family Courts. The study adopts a qualitative approach in collecting both primary and secondary data through key informant interviews and desk review of extant literature respectively in July 2013. The study uses transcripts of interviews with Judges and Magistrates in four Family Courts. The findings reveal that the composition of the Family Courts is most of the time less than three people because of irregular and non-attendance of the assessors which leads to precarious court sitting days. It is also found that children’s cases involving adult offenders are heard in regular courts. Old court structures are converted to Family Courts as no new Family Court is constructed and this may not guarantee privacy or confidentiality. The findings further reveal that some family courts are converted to general purpose courts and deflected on family matters. There is a dearth of quality facilities due to inadequate resources especially funding. The study recommends a review of the law to make it more flexible for operation, more funding to be injected into the system and cases with adult offenders should be handled in a way that it should not jeopardize the best interest of the child.