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- ItemOpen AccessSeasonal climatic variations and road accidents in Lagos, Nigeria(Department of Geography & Regional Planning, University of Benin, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria, 2012) Ayeni, A.O.; Oni, S.I.There are various causes of road accidents, some of which include carelessness, drunkenness, mal-functioning traffic lights, bad roads, road worthless vehicles and climatic conditions. This study examined road accidents in Lagos State, Nigeria in relation to seasonal climatic variations for 6 years (2005 - 2010). The road accidents data were sourced from the archives of the Federal Road Safety Commission and Nigeria Police Force (RS 2.1 Lagos) while the climatic data were sourced from the Nigerian Meteorological Agency Oshodi, Lagos. In order to generate the total monthly occurrence of road accidents, the number of accidents occurred in each month were summed while monthly climatic variables average was determined using Arithmetic mean. The results revealed that on the average, 46.69% accidents occurred in dry season. This indicates an increase of 6.62% in the rainy season. The higher cases of recorded accidents in the rainy season are attributed to the slippery condition of road surfaces and low visibility. The casualty cases is about 45.64% during the dry season which increased by 8.64% in the raining season. The highest and lowest casualties were recorded in the June and April respectively. Of the 4375 death recorded, 50.22% occurred in dry season with the highest incidence of 431 in the month of December. Correlations results shown strong positive relationship between rainfall and accident cases while temperature and accident cases revealed a negative relationship. The results indicate that the frequency of accidents is nearly equal in all climatic soasons, but higher in the wet weather.
- ItemOpen AccessThe role of basin physical property data in assessing water stress in water resources studies: The application of the Pitman rainfall-runoff model in Nigeria(University of Lagos Press and Bookshop Ltd, 2012) Ayeni, A.O.; Kapangaziwiri, E.This paper examines the role played by basin physical attributes in determining river runoff. The approach uses soil and other available hydro-meteorological and geophysical information to directly estimate the parameters of the Pitman rainfall-runoff model to generate time series of historical and future hydrology of the basin. This study discusses the physical property information required, which includes basin soil texture types, depths, soil hydraulic and drainage properties, topographic slope and sub-surface geological conditions. FAO and available Nigeria soil maps provided a baseline of the requisite general soil information and other soil attributes information was inferred from literature. Owena, Asa and Ogun basins were used as case studies to evaluate the parameter estimation routines and the Pitman rainfall-runoff monthly model in Nigeria. Owena basin has some historical data, and based on the experience of using the model gained in this basin the approaches were then transferred to the ungauged basins of Asa and Ogun. While relative success was achieved in generating the hydrology of the test basins, it is suggested that the uncertainty related to the parameter estimation and the rainfall input be investigated and incorporated into the estimation process to provide a range of probable basin hydrology.