Browsing Volume 2, Issue 1 & 2, 2014 by Issue Date
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- ItemOpen AccessDynamic Response of microbial System of Selected Communities in the Rivers State to Crude Oil (Hydrocarbons) Pollution(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Olanipekun, O.O; Ogunbayo, A.O; Nwachukwu, S.C.U; Bello, R.AThe activity of indigenous microbial system is a required tool to remediate an environment that has been contaminated by hydrocarbons. This work deals with the dynamic response to crude oil contaminants of undefined microbial systems in three selected communities of the Rivers State of Nigeria. The activities of indigenous (undefined) consortia were studied and compared using Respiratory technique. The soil samples were incubated with 2 % (𝑣𝑣⁄)crude oil in mineral salt medium at 37 oC in three phases of two weeks in a shake flask at 150 rpm. At the end of the last phase, components of the crude oil degraded by the undefined consortia in the soils were identified with the gas chromatographic techniques. The results obtained showed that the consortia from the different soil samples exhibited different degrees of capacities to degrade the crude oil. On the whole, 50.00 to 85.70 % of hydrocarbon components of the crude oil were degraded thus making the areas potentially suitable for in-situ bioremediation. The study has shown that the obtained microbiological characteristics and activities of the soils are adequate for bioremediation technologies.
- ItemOpen AccessPreponderance of Palmitoleic Acid in Moringa Oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) Seeds and Leaves from Chemical Analysis and Gas Chromatography(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Odimegwu, J.I; Ayodiran, S; Odukoya, O.AMoringa oleifera is the most widespread species of the genus Moringa, the only genus in the family Moringaceae. It is a very popular plant used in traditional herbal medicine. Different parts of the plant contain a profile of important minerals and phytochemicals. The leaves and seeds are good sources of proteins, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids, and phenolic compounds. Study was carried out to check chemical constituents of leaves and seed oil of M. oleifera obtained from Ikorodu, Lagos State. Nigeria. Dried plant parts were pulverized and subjected to proximate analysis while the oils were extracted from the seeds with hexane using Sohxlet apparatus and analyzed with gas chromatography. The chemical contents of M. oleifera leaves obtained through proximate analysis showed it had more protein than the seeds with 45.28% protein while the seeds had 40.10%. the most prevalent mineral elements in M. oleifera are magnesium and calcium which were found to be 49.50 and 54.85 (mg/100g) in the seed, 42.80 and 54.95 (mg/100g) in the leaves respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis of the oils showed the presence of various fatty acids and other organic compounds with palmitoleic acid being the most abundant with 48.41% yield of total oils and oleic acid being 11.45% much less than earlier reported. Palmitoleic acid has shown possible influence in fatty liver deposition/production, insulin action and fatty acid synthase. This makes M. oleifera seeds very important new source of natural therapy for hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia.
- ItemOpen AccessModelling of Maternal Health Care Services using Multinomial Logistic Regression(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Adewara, J.A; Ogunniran, A.J; Onyeka-Ubaka, J.NSeveral methods which have been adopted to analyze multi-category data yields unsatisfactory results because of strict assumptions regarding normality, linearity, and homoscedasticity. As a result, Multinomial logistic regression is considered as an alternative because it does not assume normality, linearity, or homoscedasticity (Hosmer & Lemeshow, (2000)). The study attempted to use Maximum likelihood estimation and predicted probability to model Maternal Health Care Services data based on a set of explanatory variables. Also to determine the indices that affect Mortality rate. The result shows that wealth index has a significant impact on the use of public and private health delivery facilities. Educational level, antenatal care, assistance during delivery and place of residence are also important factors in assessing Maternal Health Care Services. Finally, the study revealed that educated women, who are wealthy, living in urban areas and who received antenatal care services and assistance during delivery are more likely to utilize Maternal Health Care Services (MHCS)
- ItemOpen AccessEvaluation of the Therapeutic Effects of Aloe Vera Gel on Alloxan Induced Diabetic Animal Models(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Edom, J.J; Imaga, N.O; Obomniru, G.E; Oyadina, OAloe vera gel (AVG) extract is commonly used as a home remedy for some diseases, including diabetes mellitus. This study investigates the effects of pure Aloe vera (Aloe babardensis) gel on some biochemical, haematological and histological parameters in diabetic rats. The animals were divided into six groups of six rats each (n=6). Diabetes mellitus was experimentally induced in rats by intraperitoneal administration of a single dose of alloxan monohydrate (170 mg/kg BW.) following a 12 h fasting period. The Groups I and V received isotonic saline in a similar manner. The establishment of diabetes mellitus was confirmed by fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels above 350mg/dl using a GlucoMetre (AccuChek Active). The AVG extract was administered for 14 days along with the metformin and alloxan drugs administered. Blood samples were collected from fasted rats. The effect of AVG on fasting blood biochemical, haematological and oxidative stress parameters in the liver and histological examination of the liver, kidney and pancreas were evaluated. Results indicated a decrease in glucose level in the AVGtreated group and an improvement in the lipid profile, as well as some haematological parameters. In addition, oral administration of Aloebarbadensis gel decreased the level of MDA with a corresponding increase in the activities of CAT, SOD, GST and GSH levels in the liver tissue of diabetic rats. These results suggest potent hypoglycaemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant and therapeutic effects of Aloe, beneficial as a herbal remedy for the treatment/management of diabetes mellitus.
- ItemOpen AccessPattern of Ordering and Usage of Homologous Blood Transfusion for Major Elective Maxillofacial Surgery at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Ayodele, A.O; Ogunlewe, M.O; Gbotolorun, O.M; Abiola, A.O; Adeyemo, W.L.Justification for the requests for homologous blood that accompany major elective maxillofacial surgical procedures is difficult to establish in most cases. This attitude of ordering for cross-matched blood is understandable in today's legal climate, but has led to serious problems in terms of laboratory inefficiency which can no longer be ignored. To evaluate the pattern of ordering and use of homologous blood, and transfusion ratios for major elective maxillofacial surgeries at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH), Idi-Araba Lagos. Sixty-three consecutive subjects who required major elective maxillofacial surgery under general anaesthesia, and who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Data collected included age, sex, weight, and height of subjects, type of surgery done, preoperative and intraoperative haemoglobin concentration, blood units cross-matched and units transfused intraoperatively. Each subject was made to donate through a representative donor, at least one unit of homologous blood prior to surgery. There was a male predominance (57.1%) among subjects, with male to female ratio of 1.3 : 1. Mean age of subjects was 33.9 ± 13.5 years. O+ was the most predominant blood group (62%). Tumours (58.8%), were the most common indication for surgery. Majority of subjects (95.2%), had a preoperative haemoglobin concentration of ≥ 10 g/dl. Haemoglobin concentration at the point of transfusion was ˂ 10 g/dl for 58.8% of transfused subjects. The overall cross-match to transfusion ratio was 3.35, overall probability of transfusion was 26.9%, while the overall transfusion index was 0.6. Only oncological surgical procedures showed an efficient blood usage in all the 3 indices. This study also demonstrated that only onclogical surgical procedures have an indication for cross-matching of blood for surgery, however there is a need to determine the maximum surgical blood ordering schedule for these procedures. There is therefore the need to change the blood ordering pattern, and minimize over-ordering of blood for major elective maxillofacial surgery.
- ItemOpen AccessA Linguistic Fuzzy Expert System for Contagious Diseases Detection and Isolation(University of Lagos Press, Akoka, 2014) Osigbemeh, M.S; Ogunwolu, F.O; Omoare, A.A; Inyiama, H.CThis paper presents an electronic Expert system platform to detect and diagnose existing and new cases of contagious diseases as they occur with minimal contact with the index patient(s) and healthcare personnel with a confidence level that can be used to initiate or suggest appropriate follow-up action(s). The aim is to use ICT tools for patient-diagnosis, raise a red flag in real-time and thus contain contagious cases which may degenerate into an epidemic by providing a way to analyze vague and ambiguous input data from visible and reported symptoms in patients. A re-useable Expert system which makes use of fuzzy reasoning techniques and design methodology was used in this work. The Expert system is premised on rule-based fuzzy logic which captures the ambiguity, imprecision and nuances involved in disease reporting and detection using the Mamdani model. The software developed for the Fuzzy Expert system, called SOSIC, presents its diagnosis with fuzzy values between 0 to 1 corresponding to its level of confidence for the fuzzy inputs. The current approach to e-diagnosis and detection of contagious diseases using the SOSIC software is not completely contactless, thus ongoing investigations are geared towards improving SOSIC to be contactless. The developed system which runs on a computer system provides a safe procedure with minimum contact between patients and healthcare personnel to address early detection and diagnosis issues that may help forestall chain-infection and epidemics. The fuzzy based Expert system can be further extended to accommodate the detection of a wider array of symptoms as new cases arise; thus this paper fulfils an identified need in safe healthcare practice.
- ItemOpen AccessTable of Content(2014) Journal of Medicine, Science & Technology