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- ItemOpen AccessManagement of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children: Clinical practice guidelines by the Paediatric Association of Nigeria (PAN)(Paediatric Association of Nigeria, 2022-06-06) Osarogiagbon, O. W.; Ayuk, A. C.; Meremikwu, M.; Oguonu, T.; Umar, L. W.; Garba, I. B.; Nwaneri, D.; Tabansi, P. N.; Esezobor, C. I.; Ogunrinde, G. O.; Ekure, E. N.; Alikor, E. A. D.The Paediatric Association of Nigeria first published management guideline for community-acquired pneumonia in 2015 and covered available evidence at that time. This update represents a review of available recent evidence statements regarding the management of pneumonia in children, while at the same time incorporating relevant materials from the first edition of the guideline. The guideline is developed to assist clinicians in the care of children with CAP. The recommendations provided in this guideline may not be the only approach to management, since there are considerable variations among children in the clinical course of CAP. The goal of this guideline is to reduce morbidity and mortality rate of CAP in children by providing recommendations that may be relevant in assisting clinicians to make timely diagnosis and institute appropriate antibiotic therapy of children with CAP. Summarized below are recommendations made in the new 2021 CAP guideline. As part of the recommendations, the quality of the evidence is provided and the grade of the recommendation indicated. The details of the background, methods and evidence summaries that support each of these recommendations can be found in the full text of the guideline.
- ItemOpen AccessAmbiguous genitalia, giant congenital melanocytic nevus and subpulmonic outlet ventricular septal defect in an African child with Neurofibromatosis 1(John Wiley Publishers, 2023-06-14) Ekure, E. N.; Musa, K. O.; Ulonnam, N.; Kruszka, P.; Muenke, M.; Adeyemo, A. A,Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant multisystemic disease caused by mutation of the neurofibromin (NF1) gene located on chromosome 17q11. We report a case of Neurofibromatosis 1 with ambiguous genitalia, giant congenital melanocytic nevus, and associated subpulmonic outlet ventricular septal defect, hitherto unreported in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, a literature review of congenital heart diseases associated with Neurofibromatosis 1 is presented.
- ItemOpen AccessCoagulation abnormalities in children with uncorrected congenital heart defects seen at a teaching hospital in a developing country(PLOS, 2022-07-20) Majiyagbe, O. O.; Akinsete, A. M.; Adeyemo, T. A.; Salako, A. O.; Ekure, E. N.; Okoromah, C. A. N.Background Coagulation abnormality is a significant complication and cause of mortality in children with uncorrected congenital heart defects (CHD). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulation abnormalities and the associated factors in children with uncorrected CHD. Method A cross sectional study conducted to determine the prevalence of coagulation abnormalities among 70 children with uncorrected CHD aged six months to 17 years and 70 age and sex matched apparently healthy controls. Coagulation abnormalities was determined using complete blood count, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and D-dimer assay. Results The prevalence of coagulation abnormalities among children with CHD and controls was 37.1% and 7.1% respectively. Children with Cyanotic CHD had a significantly higher prevalence of coagulation abnormalities compared to children with Acyanotic CHD (57.1% versus 17.1%). Haematocrit and oxygen saturation levels were significantly associated with coagulation abnormalities. Conclusion This study affirms that coagulation abnormalities are frequent in children with uncorrected CHD. Oxygen saturation and haematocrit are risk factors of coagulation abnormalities. Routine coagulation screen is recommended especially in children with cyanotic congenital heart defects to improve their quality of life and reduce morbidity and mortality while awaiting definitive surgeries.
- ItemOpen AccessHigh blood pressure pattern amongst adolescents in Lagos, South West Nigeria(2023-04-28) Atoh, I.; Ezeogu, J.; Okeke, V. C.; Umeh, I. S.; Ekure, E.; Omokhodion, S. I.; Njokanma, F. O.Introduction: high blood pressure (HBP), once considered rare in adolescents is now a growing health problem. Usually asymptomatic in adolescents, if uncontrolled, can track into adulthood leading to various end-organ complications. In 2017, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) published a new Clinical Practice Guideline (CPG) for screening and management of high blood pressure in children and adolescents to update the 2004 Fourth report. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure among adolescents in Mushin Local Government Area (LGA) using the 2017 AAP guidelines. Methods: a descriptive cross-sectional study, conducted from August 2020 to December 2020. A two-stage sampling technique was used to select 1490 students aged 10 to 19 years, from 14 secondary schools. Socio-demographic information and relevant clinical data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The anthropometry and blood pressure measurements were taken according to standard protocol (elevated blood pressure is systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90th percentile but ≤ 95th percentile for age, gender and height). Socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics were described with descriptive statistics. Categorical variables were summarized using frequency and percentages, while numerical variables were summarized using mean and standard deviation. The predictors of hypertension were determined using logistic regression analysis. Results: study participants were 1490, 49.9% (744) were male and 50.1% (746) females (male: female ratio was 1:1). Subjects mean age was 14.39 ± 2.79 years. There were 8.9% overweight and 1.7% obese participants. Prevalence of high blood pressure, elevated blood pressure and hypertension were 26.7% (n = 398), 13.8% (n = 205), and 12.9% (n = 193). Middle and late adolescence, when compared to early adolescence, significantly predicted the likelihood of high blood pressure; aOR 1.78, 95%CI: 1.20 - 2.63, p=0.004 and 3.90 (2.69 - 5.67, p=0.001 respectively). Similarly, male sex had increased odds for raised blood pressure when compared to female sex aOR 1.49,95% CI: 1.1 - 2.0, p= 0.009. Conclusion: the prevalence of high blood pressure, elevated blood pressure and hypertension amongst adolescents was high. Early detection and treatment will forestall development of complications.
- ItemOpen AccessClinical presentation and short-term outcomes of multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children in Lagos, Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic: A case series(The Lancet, 2022-07) Sokunbi, O.; Akinbolagbe, Y.; Akintan, P.; Oyeleke, G.; Kusimo, O.; Owowo, U.; Olonade, E.; Ojo, O.; Ikhazobor, E.; Amund, O.; Ogbuokiri, E.; Funsho-Adebayo, M.; Adeniyi, O.; Uzodimma, C.; Lamina, M.; Animashaun, A.; Osinaike, B.; Ekure, E.; Okoromah, C.Background Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has increasingly been documented globally with the progression of the COVID-19 pandemic and a significant proportion of cases have been noted in children of Black descent. There has been a noticeable discrepancy in the presentation and outcomes of COVID-19 infection in sub-Saharan Africa compared to the rest of the world. We documented the demography, clinical features, laboratory and imaging findings, therapeutic management, and short-term outcomes of paediatric patients with MIS-C diagnosed during the COVID-19 pandemic in Lagos, Nigeria. Methods We carried out a retrospective review of MIS-C cases seen in nine public and private hospitals in Lagos from July 10, 2020 to July 30, 2021. Data on clinical presentation, laboratory investigations, therapy as well as outcomes at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months were analyzed. Findings 28 children and adolescents with median age of 7·5 (IQR 2·3 - 9·4) years were diagnosed with MIS-C. MIS-C was suspected in 24 patients (85·7%) at initial clinical evaluation and mucocutaneous, gastrointestinal and cardiovascular manifestations were identified in 75·0%, 71·4% and 89·3% of patients respectively. Acute kidney injury and aseptic meningitis were noted in 32·1% and 17·9% of patients respectively. Cardiac manifestations at presentation included coronary dilatation and pericardial effusion in 46·4% each, ventricular dysfunction (32·1%), atrioventricular valve regurgitation (25·0%), prolonged QTc interval (40·0%) and first-degree atrioventricular block (16·0%). Therapy included aspirin in 89·3%, steroids in 75·0% and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) infusion in 60·7%. All patients survived and were discharged after a mean of 11·14 (SD 5·65) days. Frequency of coronary dilatation had reduced from 46·4% to 7·1% by 3 months follow up and prolonged QTc interval persisted until the 6 week follow up in 4.5% of patients. Echocardiogram and electrocardiogram findings were normal in all patients assessed at 6 months follow up. Interpretation MIS-C is an important diagnosis in children presenting with prolonged fever during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cardiovascular manifestations occurred in several children with MIS-C and improved by 6 months follow up. Early diagnosis and prompt institution of a combination of antiplatelet therapy, steroids and IVIG appear to be beneficial.