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- ItemOpen AccessUrban and Rural Differences in Creativity Intelligence and Academic Achievement among Selected Primary School Pupils in Lagos State.(University of Lagos, 1989-11) Kemjika, O.G.The purpose of this research thesis was to compare the performance in creativity, intelligence (scholastic Aptitude) and academic achievement of pupils from urban, suburban and rural settings in Lagos State of Nigeria. Also investigated were differences due to sex in performance of the pupils from the three localities. The research is a 2x3 factorial design - with the two independent variables (a) sex (or gender) and (b) locality (urban suburban and rural); and three dependent variables (a) creativity (b) intelligence (or SAT) and (c) academic achievement. The sample for the study was drawn from six primary schools, two from each of the three localities in Lagos State. A total of 70 primary six pupils (35 males and 35 females) were randomly selected from each locality. This brings to a grand of 210 pupils (105 males and 105 females) who took part in the study. The average age of the pupils was 12 years. The urban sample was drawn from Ikoyi and Ikeja; suburban sample from Ikorodu, and rural sample from Itogazama and Ejinrin, in badagry and Epe Local Government Areas respectively. Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) Figural Form N, consisting of three different activities (by Torrance, 1974); and scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT-1) Obe (1982) were administered to the pupils. The creativity tests were scored for fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration and for total score. The scholastic aptitude test consisting of Numerical - and verbal-aptitude subtests was scored for Numerical - and verbal-aptitude subscores and for total score. The academic achievement test score for each pupil was his/her per centage score obtained in the First School (Primary Leaving Certificate Examination, October 1987, administered by the Ministry of Education, Lagos State of Nigeria. The scores obtained on the three variables creativity, intelligence and academic achievement as explained above were subjected to a 2 x 3 Analysis of Variance per variable. For creativity, the result showed that sex difference and the sex by school location interaction effects were not significant. However, the difference due to locality (or school location) was found to have significant effect on the pupils performance on the creativity test. A follow-up Scheffe-Test showed that significant differences exist between urban and rural on one hand and suburban and rural on the other hand only. The urban sample recorded higher mean scores in all the creativity sub-scores (fluency, flexibility, elaboration and originality) and total creativity than their rural counterparts. The suburban pupils also equally proved superior in all the above scores over their rural counterparts. The result of a 2x3 ANOVA on intelligence (SAT), test scores revealed that the sex difference and the sex by locality interaction effects were not significant. However, the locality has significant effect on the pupils performance on intelligence test. The significant difference were found to exist between urban and suburban, urban and rural. and suburban and rural samples as revealed by Scheffe-Test. The urban sample performed significantly better than both their suburban and rural counterparts in both the total scores as well as in the Numerical and verbal subscores. The suburban sample also outscored the rural sample significantly in both total score as well as in Numerical and verbal subscores. The result of the third 2x3 ANOVA based on academic achievement revealed that locality also had tremendous significant effect on the pupil's performance in this variable. The sex difference and the sex by locality interaction effects proved statistically non-significant as in the two variables. The significant effects were detected by a Scheffe Test to exist between urban and suburban samples as well as between urban and rural samples. Besides 2x3 ANOVA, a series of Pearson Product-Moment correlations (r), 27 in number were analysed. The results of the intercorrelation matrix, for creativity, intelligence and academic achievement computed for the total sample, males and females subsamples in the three localities showed that creativity and intelligence correlated significantly for the total urban sample (0.26), female subsamples (0.511), suburban total sample (0.30), suburban females (0.33); rural total sample (0.36) and males (0.56). However, there was no significant correlation between intelligence and creativity for the urban males (0.05), suburban males (0.27), and rural females (0.13). There was no significant correlations between creativity and academic achievement in all the urban and rural samples both for total, males and females and for suburban males; except for the suburban total, and suburban females. (See Chapter iv for details). As was expected, intelligence and academic achievement showed a high significant correlation in all the localities both for total, male and female samples. Details of the correlation coefficients are contained in chapter iv. The statistical results as contained in correlation coefficients are contained in chapter iv. The statistical results as explained above led to the rejection and acceptance of a number of the stated null-hypotheses. These are summarised in chapter v. The results overall showed that the urban samples on the average performed significantly better than both their rural and suburban counterparts. The suburban samples also proved superior over the rural sample. This finding is confirmed in the 2x3 ANOVA, where locality difference proved significant for all the three variables under study. The writer presented some explanations to account for this finding. Further, the implications of the results for education were also presented. Details of these will be found in the main text.
- ItemOpen AccessAchievement in Mathematics among Selected Secondary School Students in Ekiti State(2012-03) Fakorede, J.OThis study investigated the effects of testwiseness training on test anxiety and achievement in Mathematics among selected secondary school students in Ekiti State. The moderating effect of gender and cognitive ability was also investigated. The study employed the pre test-post test control group, quasi experimental research design. A total of four hundred and twenty five (425) participants consisting of two hundred and nineteen (219) male and two hundred and six (206) female Senior Secondary two (SS2) students drawn from six secondary schools in Ado-Ekiti through stratified random sampling procedure participated in the study. Testwiseness training module and traditional teaching method were used as treatment approaches while the control group was exposed to only the traditional teaching method. Three instruments; Socio-Demographic Questionnaire (SDQ), Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT) and Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (MARS-R) were used to collect data for the study. Eight hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and data collected were treated statistically using Analysis of Covariance while pair-wise comparisons were performed using Fisher’s protected t-test. All hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. Results of the data analysis revealed that testwiseness training was efficacious in improving the Mathematics performance of students and in reducing their Mathematics anxiety level while training in test-taking strategies was significantly most effective for low ability students. There was no gender difference in the students’ performance in Mathematics. Testwiseness training was equally effective in helping both male and female participants in improving Mathematics achievement and managing their Mathematics Anxiety levels. Based on the findings of this study, some conclusions were drawn, a number of recommendations were made and some suggestions for further research were also stated.
- ItemOpen AccessChildhood experiences and adolescent delinquent behaviour among remand home inmates in Lagos, Nigeria(School of Postgraduate Studies of the University of Lagos, Akoka, 2010-11) Emeri, P.N.This study investigated childhood experiences and adolescent delinquent behaviour among remand home inmates in Lagos, Nigeria. It hence sought to ascertain the contributions of; corporal punishment, parental use of invectives, parental abandonment and parental deprivation to adolescent delinquency. To achieve these objectives, eight hypotheses were raised which include: Corporal punishment in childhood will not significantly affect adolescent delinquent behaviour. Parental use of invectives will not significantly affect adolescent delinquent behaviour. Deprivation in childhood will not significantly affect adolescent delinquent behaviour. Abandonment in childhood will not significantly affect adolescent delinquency. There is no significant effect of gender on the extent to which maltreatment affects the level of delinquency. Age has no significant effect on the extent to which maltreatment affects the level of delinquency. There is no significant influence of parental socio-economic status on the forms of maltreatment and level of delinquency. Corporal punishment, parental use of invectives, parental deprivation, parental abandonment, gender, age and socio-economic status will not significantly predict adolescent delinquent behaviour. The participants for the study consisted of one hundred and eighty (180) male and female adolescents drawn from the selected remand homes and approved schools in Lagos State using stratified random sampling technique. Gender, age and socio- economic status were the basis of the stratification. The participants were asked to respond to the instrument developed for the study. The instrument used for the data collection was a self-designed questionnaire. This comprised of three sections namely: Demographic Data Inventory (DDI), Childhood Experiences Structured Inventory (CESI) and Delinquency Structured Inventory (DSI). The DDI consisted of 28 items inquiring about the biographic data and home background of the participants such as sex, age, parental occupation, parental area of residence, number of cars owned by parents and items in the home. The CESI comprised of 20 items that sought information about the participants’ childhood experiences ranging from physical abuse, verbal abuse and neglects to display of love and maximum care. The DSI comprised of 20 items and elicited information on the respondent’s level of involvement in delinquent acts. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Multiple Regressional Analysis were employed in the data analysis. The hypotheses were all tested at 0.05 level of significance. Results indicated that; Corporal punishment in childhood has a significant effect on adolescent delinquent behaviour’. Parental use of invectives has a significant effect on adolescent delinquency. Parental deprivation in childhood has a significant effect on adolescent delinquency. Parental abandonment has a significant effect on adolescent delinquency. Gender has no significant effect on the extent to which maltreatment affects the level of delinquency. Age has no significant effect on the extent to which maltreatment affects the level of delinquency. Parental socio-economic status has no significant influence on the forms of maltreatment and level of delinquency. Corporal punishment (.161), parental deprivation (.342), parental abandonment (.251) and sex (-0.240) are strong predictors of delinquency among adolescents while age (.067), socio-economic status (.015) and parental use of invectives (- 061) were not found so strong. Where the indicated values are their respective beta weights A major implication of these findings of the study for parenting is that parents and other stakeholders in child rearing should strive to provide healthy childhood experiences to their children/wards devoid of any form of maltreatment to guard against delinquency in later life. Also, certain recommendations were made and suggestions for further studies stated.
- ItemOpen AccessAssessment and Remediation of some perceived difficult concepts in Mathematics among selected Senior Secondary School Students in Lagos, Nigeria(School of Postgraduate Studies of the University of Lagos, Akoka, 2009-11) Akanni, O.O.This study investigated the assessment and remediation of some perceived difficult concepts in mathematics among selected senior secondary school students in Lagos, Nigeria. The moderating effect of gender was also examined. The study used Quasi-Experimental Pre-test, Post-Test Control Group Design. Mastery Learning and Problem-Solving were used as treatment approaches while a control group was exposed to the traditional teaching method. The sample consisted 225 males and 225 females drawn from four secondary schools in Educational District IV of Lagos State through the Stratified Random Sampling Procedure. Their ages ranged from 15 to 18 years with a Mean Age of 16.70 .The relevant data were generated using a Validated Mathematics Achievement Test (MAT),Mathematics Attitude Scale(MAS) by Obe(2002), Mathophobia check-up (MC-U) by Hodges(1983) and the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale-Revised (MARS-R) by Flakes and Parker (1982).Six hypotheses were formulated to guide the study and data collected were treated statistically using One- Way Anova, 2x3 ANCOVA, Pearson Correlation Coefficient while Post Hocs comparison were performed using Scheffe Multiple Pairwise and Least Square Difference(LSD) Procedures. Result of the data analyses revealed that Mastery Learning Approach was efficacious in ameliorating student achievement(cognitive) in mathematics and reducing anxiety level of the students while Problem Solving Approach (PSA) proved to be effective in improving students skill on solving problems(psychomotor), student attitude(affective) and effective in reducing anxiety level of the students. Based on the findings of this study, some conclusions were drawn, a number of recommendations were made and some suggestions for further research were also stated.
- ItemOpen AccessStudy of Women's Empowerment Potentials in Adult Education Programmes in Lagos State(School of Postgraduate Studies of the University of Lagos, Akoka, 2001-09) Mgbemere, N.M.This study was carried out to determine the empowerment potentials in Adult Education Programmes at the economic, psychological, social, cultural and political levels. It is also the purpose of the study to examine the content of Women's Adult Education programmes to find out whether such programmes cover the basic needs of women regarding hygiene, health care, family planning and economic and agricultural activities.