Activity Schedule and Anticipation Training as Counselling Strategies in Managing Mild-Depression among Nigerian Adolescents
A Thesis Submitted to the School of Postgraduate Studies, University of Lagos
This study investigated the impact of Activity Schedule and Anticipation Training as counselling strategies in managing mild depression among Nigerian adolescents. Six Senior Secondary Schools were randomly selected from three Education Districts in Lagos State. The total population of SS 2 students, available for the study in the six schools, was 2,982. To select the participants for the study, The Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS) was administered to assess the cognitive, affective, psychomotor, somatic and social interpersonal dimensions of depression in the students. The SDS has a test-retest reliability coefficient of 0.93, showing good stability. After the baseline assessment, the total sample for the study comprised 96 participants. The sample accommodated all the characteristics of participants in terms of age and gender from the senior secondary schools chosen for the study. The study utilized Quasi-experimental pre-test post-test control group design comprising three groups (1, 2 & 3). Two research instruments, Depression Inventory and Index of Self-Esteem were employed to generate relevant data for the study. Six null hypotheses were postulated and tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Testing of the hypotheses was set at 0. 05 level of significance. Results of the data analyses indicated that: 1. The two counselling techniques Activity Schedule (AS) and Anticipation Training (AT) were effective in managing mild depression (lack of concentration, feelings of guilt and worthlessness, persistent sad and empty moods). 2. There is a significant interaction effect on adolescents’ depression scores due to self esteem across the experimental groups. 3. There is no significant difference in depression level of participants due their socio-economic status. 4. There is insignificant effect of participants’ family size on their depression level. 5. There is no significant gender difference in the post-test scores of participants across the three experimental conditions. 6. There is insignificant difference in the depression scores of participants based on their birth order. In the light of these findings, a number of recommendations were made with the hope that if implemented, cases of adolescents’ mild depression will be assessed and effectively managed with the use of Activity Schedule and Anticipation Training as counselling Strategy.