Histomorphological and immunohistochemical studies on the effect of green coconut water

Bakare, A.A. (2015)

A Thesis Submitted to the School of Postgraduate Studies, University of Lagos


Infertility primarily refers to the biological inability to achieve and carry a live pregnancy to full term after one year of non-contraceptive, regular up to 3 to 4 times per week, unprotected and active sexual intercourse (Makar and Toth, 2002; Cooper et al., 2010). Infertility is a global health issue that is of a major concern for health authorities and has been reported to affect approximately 14% of couples worldwide (Reproductive Health Outlook, 2005). However, incidence varies from one region of the world to the other, being highest in Africa due to limited resources for investigation and treatment (Okonofua, 2003). In Nigeria, various studies have shown incidence rate ranging from 20% - 30% (Otubu, 1998; Bello, 2004). Primary infertility occurs when couples have never been able to conceive, while the inability to conceive following a previous pregnancy in the absence of contraception, breastfeeding or postpartum amenorrhea for a period of two years is termed secondary infertility (Kumar, 2005). The causes of infertility are categorized into four main factors: male factor when it is principally due to poor semen parameters, female factor when infertility is due to factors such as occlusion of fallopian tube, uterine, endometrial and cervical abnormalities and anovulation; combined factor which is established when both the male and female are infertile and unexplained factor when the cause of abnormality leading to infertility is present but is not detected (Ekwere et al., 2007; Altmae et al., 2010).