Biochemical responses of sprague dawley rats and new zealand rabbits following long-term dietary exposure to heavy metal contaminated fish
A Thesis Submitted to the School of Postgraduate Studies, University of Lagos
The environment is man’s surroundings, which include all the circumstances, influences and events that he encounters in his life time. The natural environment encompasses all living and non living things occurring naturally on earth (Dale, 2007). Without health, development and a protected environment, health has little value. Development can only be achieved through the contributions of healthy people. Continued population growth, irrational use of resources, and increasing generation of wastes create unsustainable demands on the environment (Oldroyd, 2006). Sound management of the environment brings major health benefits while inadequate or no management results in large adverse effects on health and sustainable interaction between people and their environment. There are limits to the extent to which the soil and fresh water resources can be exploited and ecosystems are used as a receptacle for the wastes generated by human society (Adams and Lambert, 2006). There are also global limits to the exploitation of non-renewable resources and to the capacity of the planetary system to absorb wastes. These global limits have become apparent as in the depletion of stratospheric ozone layer, which has implications for health and agricultural production and in the possibility of climatic disruption as a result of the release of greenhouse gases (Adams and Lambert, 2006). In developing countries, growth in industrial production has been accompanied by an increased incidence of environmental related diseases and physical hazards (Adams and David, 2006). Many of the workforces suffer exposure to occupational hazards. Priority given to human health raises an ethical dilemma if “Health for all” conflicts with protecting the environment. Respect for nature and the control of environmental degradation is a 2nd order principle which must be observed lest it conflicts with the 1st order principle of meeting and ensuring human survival needs (Seaton et al., 2005). The report of the World Council on environment and development defined sustainable development as development meeting the needs of all the present population without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their own needs. This could prove contradictory if meeting present needs implies the irreversible depletion of natural resources and the degradation of ecosystem. But the intelligent application of what is known, combined with caution and a continuous commitment to improving understanding of links between the environment, development and health can change these trends. Focusing on health provides many insights into how a better balance can be achieved between the environment and development (Dale, 2007).