Ameloblastic carcinoma: a multicenter Nigerian study.
PURPOSE: To obtain a national profile on the prevalence and management of ameloblastic carcinoma in Nigerians. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from the case files of patients with a histologic diagnosis of ameloblastic carcinoma from 4 tertiary referral centers in Nigeria from January 1980 to December 2008. RESULTS: Twenty patients were seen within the study period. There were 11 male and 9 female patients, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.2:1. Their ages ranged from 16 to 85 years (mean +/- SD, 41.63 +/- 19.8 years). The duration of the lesion before presentation was 6 months to 4 years. Twelve cases occurred in the posterior mandible alone, 1 case occurred in the anterior mandible alone, and 4 cases involved the anterior and posterior mandible. The posterior part of the maxilla was involved in 3 cases. A majority of the cases (17) occurred de novo, and 3 patients presented with carcinoma ex-ameloblastoma. Treatment included surgical resection with or without neck dissection. Eight patients declined treatment after diagnosis. Surgery was planned for 12 patients, but 2 patients died of intractable bleeding episodes before surgery. Mandibulectomies and maxillectomies were performed for 10 patients. Follow-up was carried out for 5 patients. Recurrence ranged from 6 to 96 months after the first surgery. Overall deaths recorded involved 6 patients. Three patients died within 3 years after the initial surgery and 1 patient died about 8 years after the initial surgery. One patient is still alive and well 1 year after surgery. CONCLUSION: Ameloblastic carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy. Most cases occur in the mandible and arise de novo. Early diagnosis and radical local excision remain the mainstay of treatment.