Pattern of paediatric maxillofacial fractures in Lagos, Nigeria.

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Ogunlewe, M.O.
James, O.
Ladeinde, A.L.
Adeyemo, W.L.
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BACKGROUND: Maxillofacial fractures in children are rare when compared to those occurring in adults. To establish the incidence, pattern, and aetiology of maxillofacial fractures in children aged 15 years and below in Lagos, Nigeria. DESIGN: A review of patients with maxillofacial fractures aged 15 years and below seen and treated at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria between January 1997 and December 2004 was conducted. RESULTS: Of the 225 patients with maxillofacial fractures seen within the study period, 37 (16.4%) were children aged 15 years and below, with a male-to-female ratio of 1.5 : 1. The highest incidence recorded was found within the age group 12-15 years (41%), with the lowest incidence occurring in the age group 0-5 years (27%). Multiple fractures were commoner in older patients (P > 0.05), and in boys (P > 0.05). There were no statistically significant relationships between the age of the patients, gender distribution, and mechanisms of injury. Road traffic crashes were the most common aetiological factor (64.9%), with the mandible being the most involved facial bone (63.8%). Majority of the mandibular fractures (33.3%) were located in parasymphyseal region. Zygomatic complex fractures were the most common in the mid-facial region. Most of the fractures (81.1%) were immobilized by simple methods (arch bars, eyelet wires, acrylic splint with circum-mandibular wiring) with or without intermaxillary fixation. Of the cases, 18.9% were managed conservatively. CONCLUSION: The incidence of facial fractures in this study was found to be higher than previously reported in Nigeria and worldwide, with almost two-thirds of cases a result of road traffic crashes. There is a need to enforce legislation aimed at preventing road traffic crashes to reduce maxillofacial injuries in children.
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Paediatric , Maxillofacial Fracture , Research Subject Categories::ODONTOLOGY
Ogunlewe MO, James O, Ladeinde AL, Adeyemo WL. Pattern of paediatric maxillofacial fractures in Lagos, Nigeria. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2006 Sep;16(5):358-62.