Association of body mass index and abdominal adiposity with atherogenic lipid profile in Nigerians with type 2 diabetes and/or hypertension.
BACKGROUND: We explored the relationship between anthropometric indices (obesity and abdominal adiposity) and the presence of an atherogenic lipid profile in Nigerians with major cardiovascular risk factors (type 2 diabetes mellitus-T2DM, hypertension-HBP, and concomitant disease). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a prospective design, 278 patients with T2DM, HBP, or concomitant disease, attending out-patient diabetes and hypertension clinics at a tertiary institution in Nigeria were evaluated. All patients were cholesterol-lowering oral medication naοve. Demographic and clinical data and anthropometric measurements were documented. Fasting lipid profiles were measured in all cases. The cut-off points for defining dyslipidaemia were: Elevated total cholesterol (TC) (mg/dL) ≥200, elevated low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C) (mg/dL) ≥100, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (mg/dL) <40 for men and <50 for women, and high triglycerides (TG) (mg/dL) ≥150 mg/dL. RESULTS: We found a significantly higher mean BMI (kg/m(2)) in the HBP group (30.5 ± 6.0) compared to T2DM (28.1 ± 5.9) and concomitant HBP and T2DM groups (29.4 ± 5.2) (ANOVA; P = 0.02). The most frequent dyslipidaemia was elevated LDL-C in 92 (96.8%) HBP, 73 (85.9%) T2DM and 79 (80.6%) concomitant disease. The frequency of low HDL-C was highest in T2DM (68.2%) compared to the other 2 groups (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Only TG levels were found to relate with any anthropometric index (waist circumference (WC) in this case) in Nigerians with major cardiovascular risk factors in this study. Routine anthropometric indices do not appear to be reliable surrogates for atherogenicity measured by abnormalities in TC, LDL-C and HDL-C.