Determinants of Perinatal Mortality in Nigeria. International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
Objective: To determine risk factors for perinatal mortality among hospital-based deliveries in Nigeria. Methods: The WHO Global Maternal and Perinatal Health Survey was implemented in Nigeria as a first step in establishing a global system for monitoring maternal and perinatal health. Twenty-one health facilities with more than 1000 deliveries annually were selected by a stratified multistage cluster sampling strategy. Information was recorded on all women who delivered and their neonates within a 3-month period. Results: Overall, there were 9208 deliveries, comprising 8526 live births, 369 fresh stillbirths, 282 macerated stillbirths, 70 early neonatal deaths, and 721 perinatal deaths. The stillbirth and perinatalmortality rateswere, respectively, 71 and 78 per 1000 deliveries; the early neonatal death rate was 8 per 1000 live births. Approximately 10% of all newborns weighed less than 2500 g, and 12.3% were born at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Predictors of perinatal mortality were mother's age, lack of prenatal care, unbooked status, prematurity, and birth asphyxia. Conclusion: The perinatal mortality rate remains unacceptably high in Nigeria. Fresh stillbirth accounted formost perinatal deaths. Interventions to improve the utilization and quality of prenatal care, in addition to the quality of intrapartum care, would considerably reduce perinatal death.