Markovian Queueing Model for Throughput Maximization in D2D-Enabled Cellular Networks
Device-to-Device (D2D) communication has been considered a key enabling technology that can facilitate spectrum sharing in 4G and 5G cellular networks. In order to meet the high data rate demands of these new generation cellular networks, this paper considers the optimization of available spectrum resource through dynamic spectrum access. The utilization of continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) model for efficient spectrum access in D2D-enabled cellular networks is investigated for the purpose of determining the impact of this model on the capacity improvement of cellular networks. The paper considers the use of CTMC model with both queueing and non-queueing cases called 13-Q CTMC and 6-NQ CTMC respectively with the aim of improving the overall capacity of the cellular network under a fairness constraint among all users. The proposed strategy consequently ensures that spectrum access for cellular and D2D users is optimally coordinated by designing optimal spectrum access probabilities. Numerical simulations are performed to observe the impact of the proposed Markovian queueing model on spectrum access and consequently on the capacity of D2D-enabled cellular networks. Results showed that the proposed 13-Q CTMC provides a more spectrum efficient sharing scheme, thereby enabling better network performances and larger capabilities to accommodate more users.