Particle Size Analysis and Characterization of Cassava (Manihot esculenta crantz) Stem Nanoparticles (CSNPs) via a Top-down Approach
Characterization of synthesized cassava stem nanoparticles (CSNPs) was carried out using SEM/EDX and Gwyddion software, XRD and TEM for cassava stem (CS) ball milled at 36, 48, 60 and 72 h. The morphology study was done using SEM and the Gwyddion software was used to determine the particle size from the SEM images. The particle size range for the un-milled cassava stem (CS) was between 1.02+ 0.05 to 19.99+ 1.00 µm. After milling for 36, 48, 60 and 72 h the average particle size were 0.93+0.05 µm, 128.20+ 6.41, 111.20+ 5.56, 101.20 + 5.06 nm respectively. The particle size of 11.83+0.59 nm was obtained by XRD using Scherrer equation after milling for 72 h and the XRD results revealed the presence of compounds such as SiO2, CaCO3, Ca3SiO5 and Al2O3. Furthermore, TEM was used to determine nanoparticles after milling for 72 h and the particle size ranged from 8.35 + 0.42 to 51.74 + 2.59 nm for cassava stem nanoparticles (CSNPs) and EDX result showed trace element of O,Si, Ca, Al, K, Ti, Fe andP in the CS milled for 72 h.