Prevalence of HIV related oral lesions in people living with HIV and on combined antiretroviral therapy: a Nigerian experience
PanAfrican medical journal
Introduction: oral lesions comprise significant clinical features of HIV infection and are often indicators of immune suppression. However, the advent of antiretroviral therapy has significantly reduced its prevalence. The aim of this study was to relate the prevalence of oral lesions of HIV to treatment outcome of Combined Antiretroviral Therapy (cART) in a Nigerian HIV adult population. Methods: a cross- sectional study was conducted on 491 People Living with HIV (PLWHIV) on cART from two HIV centres in Lagos state, Nigeria. The EC-clearing house guidelines were employed to categorise oral lesions. Presence or absence of these lesions was reconciled with CD4+ cell count as a measure of efficacy of cART treatment. Results: a total of 491 PLWHIV on cART were enrolled, 366 (74.5%) were females and 125 (25.5%) were males. Age ranged between 18-80 years, with a mean of 41.2 ± 9.1 years. On examination, 12 (2.4%) patients presented with HIV oral lesions. Oral hyperpigmentation (10, 2.0%) was the most common lesion seen, followed by oral ulcers (2,0.4%). Majority (75%) of the affected patients were on a Lamivudine containing regimen. 7 out of the 12 patients with oral lesions had CD4+ cell count between 200-500 cell/mm3 prior to cART initiation. Eleven (92%) of the patients with oral lesions had significant improvement of their CD4+ cell count after cART administration. Conclusion: the prevalence of oral lesions in HIV patients on cART therapy in Lagos is low. Oral hyperpigmentation and oral ulcers are the most frequent lesions seen. The presence or absence of oral lesions were not associated with CD4+ cell count. Therefore, we conclude that the oral lesions seen in HIV patients on cART may not be a direct manifestation of the disease.
Oral lesions , cART , HIV , Research Subject Categories::MEDICINE
Eweka, O. M., Ogbenna, A. A., Gbajabiamila, T., Ogundana, O. M. and Akanmu, A. S. (2018). Prevalence of HIV related oral lesions in people living with HIV and on combined antiretroviral therapy: a Nigerian experience. The Pan African medical journal, 31, 180. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2018.31.180.13574