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- ItemOpen AccessAssessment of MTR Rs1805087 SNP as Possible Modifier of Sickle Cell Disease Severity in a Nigerian Population(West African Journal of Medicine, 2022) Osunkalu V.O; Ogbenna A.A; Davies N.O; Olowoselu F.O; Aiyelokun O.E; Akinsola O.J; Taiwo I.AABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease is the commonest genetic disorder in Nigeria, affecting 2–3% of an estimated population of 160 million people. The role of genetic mutations in folate cycle genes, and the variable phenotypic expressions constituting disease severity, needs to be critically examined. OBJECTIVE: This study was carried out to establish the pattern of methionine synthase gene mutations (rs1805087 SNP), and its possible association with disease severity in adults with sickle cell anaemia in Lagos, Nigeria. METHODOLOGY: This is a cross-sectional study of seventy (70) subjects with sickle cell disease (HbSS) matched for age and gender with known apparently healthy haemoglobin genotype AA (HbAA) subjects, as cases and controls respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to obtain demographic, clinical and other phenotypic data needed to compute disease severity. Pattern of MTR A2756G gene mutation and homocysteine assay (Hcy) were assessed by Polymerase Chain Reaction and Enzyme- linked Immunosorbent Assay respectively. Full blood count analysis of participants was done using the KX-21 Automated Analyzer (Sysmex Corporation, Japan). RESULTS: The mutant genotypes MTR 2756 AG/GG were recorded in 46.4% (n =55) of subjects with disease severity score >7. Elevated plasma homocysteine (HHcy) was significantly associated with disease severity among HbSS subjects (OR=17.2, CI: 3.490-86.079; p=0.0001). Conversely, no significant association was observed with the mutant genotypes MTR 2756 AG/GG and disease severity (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: While HHcy is significantly associated with phenotypic expression of HbSS, the MTR 2756 SNPs did not appear to independently influence homocysteine level or disease severity in HbSS subjects.
- ItemOpen AccessBlood Coagulation Normalization Effect of Parkia Biglobosa Seed on Potassium Bromate-induced Coagulopathy(West African Journal of Medicine, 2023) Ugwu N.I; Uche C.I; Ogbenna A.A; Okite U.P; Chkezie K; Ejikem P.I; Ugwu C.N; Otuka O.A.I; Ezirim E.O; Onyekachi O.I.N; Nwobodo M.U; Abali I.O; Iwuoha C.E; Airaodion A.IABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Potassium bromate (KBrO3) has been reported to be toxic, adversely affecting many body tissues and organs. The aim of this study was to determine the blood coagulation effect of Parkia biglobosa (P. biglobosa) seed on potassium bromate induced coagulopathy. METHODOLOGY: P. biglobosa was extracted with soxhlet extractor with ethanol as the solvent. Twenty-four adult male Wistar rats were acclimatized under laboratory conditions and were randomly grouped into A, B, C and D. Group A was given distilled water orally. Animals in groups B, C and D were administered 100 mg/kg body weight of potassium bromate, but groups C and D were also treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of P. biglobosa respectively. Both potassium bromate and P. biglobosa were freshly prepared on daily basis and administered to rats by oral gavage for 28 days. At the end of the treatment period, blood samples were collected in sodium citrate bottles and were used for analysis of Prothrombin Time (PT), Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT), Thrombin Time (TT), fibrinogen and vitamin K levels using standard methods. RESULTS: Administration of potassium bromate increased Prothrombin Time (PT) from 11.67±2.15 seconds (in control animals) to 19.53±2.83 seconds. Treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of P. biglobosa seed extract neutralized this effect in a dose-dependent manner. Likewise, KBrO3 was observed to have significantly elevated Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT) from 29.67±3.93 to 41.10±4.79 seconds and Thrombin Time (TT) from 15.36±2.06 to 25.43±2.83 seconds when compared with those in the control group. The result further showed that exposure of animals to KBrO3 significantly declined the levels of fibrinogen (from 4.05±0.72 to 2.59±0.30 g/dL) and vitamin K (from 3.18±0.73 to 1.84±0.18 ng/mL) when compared with the untreated animals. The effect of KBrO3 on PT, APTT, TT, Fibrinogen and vitamin k were attenuated by P. biglobosa in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The results of this investigation demonstrated that potassium bromate caused prolongation of PT, aPTT and TT and decreased levels of fibrinogen and vitamin K, but P. biglobosa treatment counteracted these effects. Thus, it is recommended that these results be investigated in clinical trials in human volunteers.
- ItemOpen AccessGenotypic and Phenotypic Markers of Pre-Eclampsia: A Folate Based Algorithm in Pregnancy(Nigerian Hospital Practice, 2022) Osunkalu V.O; Taiwo I.A; Makwe C.C; Ogbenna A.A; Ugwuadu C.S; Anorlu R.IPre-eclampsia among pregnant women in Nigeria accounts for a high proportion of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality that has been reported. This study aimed to determine the pattern, sensitivity, and specificity of some genetic polymorphisms, epigenetic modification and phenotypic characteristics of some key enzymes in the folate cycle, in the pathogenesis and as potential markers of Pre-Eclampsia (PE) among pregnant women. Demographic and clinical histories were obtained from a group of 200 pregnant females clinically diagnosed with PE (Study Group) and 200 pregnant, normotensive females (Control Group) through questionnaires and hospital records. The biochemical parameters measured in the study were: red cell folate, plasma homocysteine (Hcy), plasma protein, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase enzyme level (MTHFR) and malondialdehyde (MDA). The MTHFR C677T and MTR A2756G SNPs were amplified using PCR, and digested with Hinf I and Hae III restriction enzymes respectively. Methylation status of the MTHFR gene was assessed using the methylation specific PCR method. Homocysteine/MTHFR (Hcy/MTHFR) ratio at 81% sensitivity and homocysteine/protein ratio (Hcy/pro) at 77% sensitivity were better indicators of PE than Hcy (63% sensitivity) at a false positive rate of 10%. However, a combined nine parameter biomarker comprising of BMI, Hcy, MTHFR enzyme, MDA, Hcy/pro, Hcy/MTHFR, CpG island methylation status, MTHFR677 SNPs, and MTHFR/MTR Haplotypes, presented the highest sensitivity (83%) at 90% specificity for identifying PE at a cut-off value of 11 point (of 25). Folate metabolic derivatives, folate cycle gene polymorphisms and epigenetic modifications are significant factors in the pathogenesis of PE and may play significant role in the early identification of PE among pregnant women.
- ItemOpen AccessVoluntary blood donor retention in jos, new transfusion transmissible infections: the implications for a resource dependent setting(International journal of current research, 2014) Damulak O.D; Adediran A.A; Ogbenna A.A; Bodunde T; Bolorunduro S.A; Smith OIntroduction: Blood donors are generally scarce and few in most developing countries, Nigeria inclusive. The retention of available safe blood donors, a pool of reliable committed blood givers, may reduce protracted acute blood shortage. Aims: This study sought to determine the donor retention rate, new TTIs rate and make recommendations that suit our setting. Methods: This retrospective study was carried out at the North Central Zonal Centre of the National Blood Transfusion Service (NBTS), Jos. All blood donors who donated at the NBTS centre between January 2009 and December 2013 were analyzed and categorized into first time and retained donors. Retained donors were further grouped according to their number of donations and rate of TTIs. Results: Thirty thousand two hundred and sixty four people, mean age 24.6 years; 70.5% males and 29.5% females donated blood within the study period. The crude TTIs rate of all blood donors 18.5% and 9.1% among committed donors. Repeat blood donors were 11,198 (37.0%), consisting of 90.5% regular and 9.5% lapsed. 97.8%, and 2.2% retained donors donated 2-15 and above 15 times with the crude TTIs rates of 9.1%, and 0.0% respectively. Conclusion: Blood donor retention could be successful in a resource poor setting with the advantage of decreasing TTIs rate associated with increasing number of donations. We further conclude that the retention of donors could enhance efficient utilization of donor funds.
- ItemOpen AccessAn audit of request forms submitted in a multidisciplinary diagnostic center in Lagos(PanAfrican Medical Journal, 2015) Oyedeji, O.A; Ogbenna, A.A; Iwuala, S.OIntroduction: Request forms are important means of communication between physicians and diagnostic service providers. Pre-analytical errors account for over two thirds of errors encountered in diagnostic service provision. The importance of adequate completion of request forms is usually underestimated by physicians which may result in medical errors or delay in instituting appropriate treatment. The aim of this study was to audit the level of completion of request forms presented at a multidisciplinary diagnostic center. Methods: A review of all requests forms for investigations which included radiologic, laboratory and cardiac investigations received between July and December 2011 was performed to assess their level of completeness. The data was entered into a spreadsheet and analyzed. Results: Only 1.3% of the 7,841 request forms reviewed were fully completed. Patient's names, the referring physician's name and gender were the most completed information on the forms evaluated with 99.0%, 99.0% and 90.3% completion respectively. Patient's age was provided in 68.0%, request date in 88.2%, and clinical notes/ diagnosis in 65.9% of the requests. Patient's full address was provided in only 5.6% of requests evaluated. Conclusion: This study shows that investigation request forms are inadequately filled by physicians in our environment. Continuous medical education of physicians on the need for adequate completion of request forms is needed.