The role of sexually transmitted infections in hiv transmission
Sexually transmitted infections (STls) are a major cause of acute illness, infertility, long-term dis- ability, and death worldwide. In 1999, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimated that 340 million new cases of four curable STls- syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis- occurred in men and women aged 15 to 49 years (1). Apart from contributing significantly to mor- bidity and mortality, STls are often associated with increased sexual transmission of HIV. STls traditionally include all contagious infections in which the principal mode of transmission is sexual contact with mucous membranes and/or skin surfaces. Initially, only a few infections- such as syphilis and gonorrhea-were considered to be sexually transmitted (2). The WHO has since broadened this definition, however, to include more than 20 bacteria, viruses, fungi, and pro- tozoa (1,3) (Tabl7 5-1). Bacterial infections that are primarily transmitted sexually include syphilis (freponema pallidum); gonorrhea (Neisseriagonorrhoeae); lymphogranuloma venereurn (Chlamydia t.-a- chomatis); chancroid (HaemoJihilus ducreyi); and non-specific urethritis and cervicitis (Ureaplasma ure- alyticum and Mycoplasma genitalium). Common sexually transmitted viruses include human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex type 2, various strains of human papillomavirus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human herpes virus type 8, and human T-cell Iyrnphotrophic virus.
Sexually transmitted infections (STls) , Infertility , World health organization , Illnesses , Research Subject Categories::MEDICINE
Ogunsola F.T. (2004). The role of sexually transmitted infections in HUV transmission. S93-130.