Modulatory Effect of Baphia Nitida Dye in Toluene Induced Cytogenotoxicity, Hematotoxicity and Histopathology in Dermal Exposed Wistar Rats

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Alimba, C.G.
Adekoya, K.O.
Ogunkanmi, L.A.
Oboh, B.O.
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Iranian Journal of Toxicology
Background: There is unprecedented increase in the processing and packaging of many plant materials into food supplements, herbal medicine, skincare and cosmetic products for human needs. Baphia nitida is used for topical skincare products. Toluene, a toxic aromatic solvent, is increasingly being used in the production of these skincare and cosmetic products in many industries. This study assessed toluene toxicological profile and the ability of Baphia nitida dye to ameliorate toluene induced cytogenotoxicity, hematotoxicity and histopathological effects in rats. Methods: Rats were treated with various concentrations; 0, 1000, 2000 and 5000 mg of the aqueous, ethanol and toluene processed B. nitida dye via dermal exposure for acute and sublethal toxicity. 96 h acute toxicity was assessed for the solvents. Micronuclei induction, alterations in hematological indices and erythrocyte morphology and skin histology were assessed after sub-lethal treatment. Results: 96 h LD50 of B. nitida processed dye for the three solvents were indeterminate. There was insignificant (p>0.05) alterations in the hematological indices and erythrocyte morphology, induction of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocyte and polychromatic and normochromatic erythrocyte ratio in the aqueous and ethanol processed B. nitida treated rats compared to their corresponding controls. Toluene induced significant (p<0.05) decrease in erythrocytes count, hematocrit and leucocytes, increased micronucleated PCE, decreased PCE/NCE ratio and induced necrosis, thick dermal layer and dispersed areolar tissues in treated rats. But, these effects were ameliorated by the B. nitida dye. Conclusion: Camwood dye protects against toluene induced toxicity in rats. This suggests its relative safety in topical cosmetic and skincare production.
Camwood Dye , Hematology , Histopathology , Micronucleus Test , Toluene , Rats
Alimba, G.C., Adekoya, K.O., Ogunkanmi, L.A. and Oboh, B.O. (2015). Modulatory Effect of Baphia nitida Dye in Toluene Induced Cytogenotoxicity, Hematotoxicity and Histopathology in Dermal Exposed Wistar Rats. Iranian Journal of Toxicology. 9 (28): 1225 – 1234