Toxicological evaluations of treated cosmetic effluent on Clarias gariepinus (The African Sharptooth Catfish)
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Sogbanmu, Temitope O.
University of Lagos Journal of Medicine, Science and Technology
The preponderance of industrial activities has led to the discharge of often untreated effluents into the aquatic environment. Some industries endeavour to carry out some form of treatment on their effluent before discharge into the environment; however, there is need to determine the efficiency of such treatment by evaluating potential biological effects in aquatic organisms. In this study, we investigated the physico-chemical parameters of a treated cosmetic effluent as well as the biochemical and histological effects of sublethal concentrations of the effluent in Clarias gariepinus (The African sharptooth catfish) over a period of 28 days. Some physico-chemical parameters including zinc and lead were higher than the Federal Ministry of Environment set limits while others such as phthalate, triclosan and parabens were not detected. The median lethal concentration of the effluent to C. gariepinus was 4.14 mL/L (0.41%). Significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in the levels of reduced glutathione and malondialdehyde in the liver of C. gariepinus exposed to sublethal concentrations of the treated effluent compared to control after 14 and 28 days of exposure. Histological alterations observed in C. gariepinus exposed to sublethal concentrations of the treated effluent were shortening/blunting of secondary lamellae in the gills and hepatic central veins infiltrated with red blood cells in the liver. The results show that long-term exposure to sublethal concentrations of the treated cosmetic effluents may cause deleterious effects to animals inhabiting recipient freshwater ecosystems. Further studies to explore other potential biological effects of treated cosmetic effluents are recommended in order to provide holistic and evidence-based information to relevant stakeholders and environmental regulatory agencies.
Biochemical indices , Clarias gariepinus , Cosmetic effluent , Freshwater ecosytems , Histological alterations
Sogbanmu, T. O., Bawa-Allah, K. A. and Oroboade, D. F. (2019). Toxicological evaluations of treated cosmetic effluent on Clarias gariepinus (The African Sharptooth Catfish). UNILAG Journal of Medicine, Science and Technology 7(2): 83-98.