In vivo and In vitro Reproductive Toxicity Assessment of Ampicillin and Cloxacillin in Mammalian models.

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Raji Y.
Awobajo F. O.
Kunle-Alabi O.T.
Gbadegesin M. A.
Bolarinwa A. F.
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International J. of Pharmacology
Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the individual impact of ampicillin and cloxacillin on male reproduction using both in vivo and in vitro models. In the in vivo study, forty adult male albino rats divided into five groups were treated daily with 0.5 mL sterile water (control), 4 mg/100 g b.w/day of ampicillin and 6 mg/100 g b.w/day of cloxacillin. Each drug treated group had a corresponding recovery group. Vehicle and drugs were administered orally for two weeks at the end of which rats were sacrificed; the recovery rats were sacrificed two weeks later. Body and reproductive organ weights and histomorphometric analyses of the testes and epididymides were carried out. Sperm counts, motility, viability and morphology and serum testosterone levels were determined. In the in vitro study, semen from the West African Dwarf Buck (WADB) was extended in graded concentrations (2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 15.0 and 20.0 mg mL 1) of ampicillin and cloxacillin individually for 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. The in vivo results show that both drugs did not adversely affect body weigh but caused significant reduction (p<0.05) in the weight of the testes, epididymides, seminal vesicles and prostate glands. Similarly there was a significant decrease in sperm counts, motility, viability and morphologically normal spermatozoa. Seminiferous tubular diameter and epididymal ductular diameter were significantly reduced (p<0.05) in both ampicillin and cloxacillin treated rats when compared with the control. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in serum testosterone levels. Discontinuation of treatment led to recovery of organ weighs, testosterone secretion and sperm functions. In the in vitro experiments, sperm motility was significantly reduced (p<0.05) in the two drugs. This reduction was both dose and duration dependent. The results suggest that ampicillin and cloxacillin could induce reversible infertility in male, which could be mediated by decrease in testosterone secretion.