Specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified as ecological risk factors in the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria
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Sogbanmu, Temitope O.
The ecological risk assessment (ERA) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is imperative due to their ubiquity and biological effects in aquatic organisms. We evaluated the seasonal levels and ERA of 16 priority PAHs in surface water, sediment and fish from four (4) anthropogenic-impacted zones of the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria. PAHs were analysed using GC-FID and standard guidelines were utilized for the ERA. Also, we developed a sediment to water-PAHs ratio and ranking of PAHs for the ERA. The dominant fish species were Sarotherodon melanotheron (Black-Jawed Tilapia), Gerres melanopterus (Gerres), Liza falcipinnis (Sicklefin Mullet) and Pseudotolithus elongatus (Bobo Croaker) at Ilaje, Iddo, Atlas cove and Apapa zones respectively. The range of sum PAHs was 195–1006 μg L−1, 302–1290 μg kg−1 and 8.80–26.1 μg kg−1 in surface water, sediment and fish species respectively. Naphthalene was dominant in the surface water and sediment samples while 3-ring to 4-ring PAHs were predominant in fish species across the zones and seasons. The sediment to water-PAHs ratio was greater than 1 for sum PAHs and significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the wet season for specific PAHs across the zones and seasons. On the basis of the sediment PAHs level, Apapa zone was highly polluted with frequent biological effects while the other zones were moderately polluted with occasional biological effects across the zones and seasons. Fish species from all zones were minimally contaminated in both seasons except S. melanotheron which was not contaminated. The specific PAHs identified as ecological risk factors in the lagoon and ranking based on 50–75% recurrence in the ERA were; naphthalene, acenaphthene > acenaphthylene, fluorene, pyrene and benzo[a]anthracene. We recommend that the specific PAHs identified should form the basis for the establishment of environmental quality standards for individual PAHs in coastal waters based on the UN sustainable development goal 14 (life below water).
Ecological risk assessment , Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons , Sediment , Surface water , Fish species
Sogbanmu, T. O., Osibona, A. O. and Otitoloju, A. A. (2019). Specific polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons identified as ecological risk factors in the Lagos lagoon, Nigeria. Environmental Pollution 255: 113295