Antimicrobial effects of Zingiber officinale Rhizomes extracts on selected pathogenic clinical isolates

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Igwo-Ezikpe, M.N.
Imaga, N.O.A.
Ogbunugafor, H.A.
Osuntoki, A.A.
Adeleye, S.
Ipadeola, A.O.
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The Bioscientist Journal
The success of microbial chemotherapy lies in the continuous search for novel drugs to counter the challenges posed by resistant strains. The antimicrobial and growth inhibition effect of different Zingiber officinale solvent extracts (n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, butanol, methanol and water extract) were investigated against five pathogenic bacterial and fungal isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus subtili sand Candida albicans). Agar well diffusion technique was used to determine the antimicrobial activity of the extracts while broth dilution technique was used for Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC). The zones of inhibition on agar wells were observed to vary depending on the microbe and type of extract. The ethyl acetate extract exhibited the most prominent antimicrobial activity as it was effective against all the five pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas putida and Candida albicans), but was more toxic against Bacillus subtilis (14 mm). Butanol extract showed toxicity against Bacillus subtilis (10 mm) and Candida albicans (12 mm). Chloroform extract showed antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans (10.0 mm). However, aqueous, methanol, petroleum and n-hexane extracts did not show any antimicrobial activity against the pathogens studied. Ethyl acetate extract exhibited its antibacterial and antifungal efficacy with an MIC value of 50 mg/ml against P. putida, B. subtilis and C. albicans while chloroform extract was effective at 100 mg/ml against C. albicans. Furthermore, butanol and ethyl acetate extracts also showed their antimicrobial efficacy against C. albicans and E. coli respectively with an MIC of 100 mg/ml. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration determined for the potent extracts showed that butanol extract had bactericidal efficacy at 25 mg/ml concentration against Bacillus subtilis. Ethyl acetate extract also exhibited its antibacterial potency at an MBC of 50 mg/ml against P. putida, B. subtilis and S. aureus but at 100 mg/ml against E. coli. For the Minimum Fungicidal Concentration, butanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts were effective as fungicidal agents against Candida albicans at MFC of 100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively. This study has shown the potential of ginger rhizomes as`possible antimicrobial agent.
Research Subject Categories::NATURAL SCIENCES::Chemistry::Biochemistry , Zingiber officinale , solvent extracts , bacterial , fungal , isolates , antimicrobial
Igwo-Ezikpe, M.N., Imaga, N.O.A., Ogbunugafor, H.A., Osuntoki, A.A., Adeleye, S.and A.O. Ipadeola. The Bioscientist. 1(1):73-79. 2013