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- ItemOpen AccessRemediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil by Enhanced Natural Attenuation Technique(J. Appl. Sci. Environ., 2015) EBUEHI, O.A.T.The concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, total hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (THUB), total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) and total petroleum hydrocarbon were determined using the remediation by enhanced natural attenuation (RENA) in a crude oil contaminated farmland in Rivers state, Nigeria. A TPH concentration of 1.1004 x10 4 mg/kg of the sandy soil was achieved after spiking and tilling. There was a reduction in the TPH level from 300mg/kg after 8weeks, to 282mg/kg after 10weeks.No significant reduction in the TPH level was observed after the 10th week. The nitrogen and phosphorus levels of the sandy soil were 24.6 and 22.8mg/kg respectively. This suggests that the nitrogen and phosphorus levels could no longer support biodegradation at the residual TPH levels of 282mg/kg and 22.8mg/kg after spiking and tilling respectively, which further reduced to 0.12mg/kg and 1.7mg/kg respectively after 10 weeks. The total hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (THUB) increased from 3.0 x 10 4 cfu/g to 8.55x10 4 cfu/g and finally reduced to 5.38 x10 4 cfu/g, while the total heterotrophic bacteria (THB) reduced from 1.22 x10 8 cfu/g to 5.98 x 10 5 cfu/g. Data of the study indicate that remediation enhanced natural attenuation technique could be employed to remediate a farm settlement contaminated by crude oil.
- ItemOpen AccessGender and Alcohol Consumption Affect Human Serum Enzymes, Protein and Bilirubin(European Journal of Scientific Research, 2016) EBUEHI, O.A.T.Objective: The effects of gender and alcohol consumption on serum enzymes, protein and bilirubin in heavy, moderate and non-drinkers were investigated. Method: Seven-two healthy human subjects were divided equally into males and females. They were categorized as heavy, moderate and non-drinkers, using carefully structured questionnaires .Whole blood was taken via puncture of the cubical vein and serum protein, albumin, total and direct bilirubin concentrations were determined using Synchron CX 5 autoanalyzer. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase were assayed. Results: The age and body mass index of the males and females were 45.60 + 1.80years, 22.16+0.83 kg/m2 and 43.87+2.46 years, 20.78 +1.03 kg/m2 respectively. Serum protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were significantly different in both male and female heavy and moderate drinkers. The activities of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase in the non drinkers were significantly lower than in moderate or heavy drinkers of alcohol in both males and females. Conclusion: These findings indicate that alcohol consumption either as chronic or moderate, elevated the activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transferase in both males and females, but more pronounced in the females. Serum protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were impaired by alcohol consumption in both males and females, and may provide additional information in the diagnosis and management of alcoholism.
- ItemOpen AccessHealth Care Providers' Knowledge of, Attitudes toward and Provision of Emergency Contraceptives in Lagos, Nigeria(Guttmacher Institute, 2016) EBUEHI, O.A.T.Emergency contraception can play an important role in reducing the rate of unintended pregnancies in Nigeria. Although it is included in the national family planning guidelines, there is limited awareness of this method among clients. METHODS: In 2003-2004, a sample of256 health care providers within Lagos State were surveyed about their knowl- edge of, attitudes toward and provision of emergency contraceptives, using a 25-item, self-administered question- naire. Frequencies were calculated for the various measures, and chi-square tests were used to determine significant differences. RESULTS: Nine in 10 providers had heard of emergency contraception, but many lacked specific knowledge about the method. Only half of them knew the correct time frame for effective use of emergency contraceptive pills, and three- fourths knew that the pills prevent pregnancy; more than a third incorrectly believed that they may act as an abortifa- cient. Fewer than a third of respondents who had heard of the pills knew that they are legal in Nigeria. Of those who had heard about emergency contraception, 58% had provided clients with emergency contraceptive pills, yet only 10% of these providers could correctly identify the drug, dose and timing of the first pill in the regimen. Furthermore, fewer than one in 10 of those who knew of emergency contraception said they always provided information to clients, whereas a fourth said they never did so. CONCLUSIONS: Nigerian health care providers urgently need education about emergency contraception; training programs should target the types of providers who are less knowledgeable about the methods.
- ItemOpen AccessOxidative Stress in Alloxan – Induced Diabetes in Female and Male Rats.(American-Eurasian Network for Scientific Information, 2010) EBUEHI, O.A.T.Oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetes in female and male rats was investigated. Forty male (165±8.46g) and female (162.7±7.94g) albino Sprague Dawley rats were used for the study. The rats were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 150mg/body weight of alloxan monohydrate, to induce diabetes for 14 days. The rats were divided into four groups, consisting of 10 diabetic male, 10 non-diabetic male, 10 diabetic female and 10 non-diabetic female. The body weight and feed intake of the rats were fed rat chow and water ad libitum for 14 days and then sacrificed by decapitation. Blood was taken by cardiac puncture, while liver and kidney were quickly excised. The catalase activities, lipid peroxidation, glucose protein, cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in the liver and kidney of rats were determined. Rats administered alloxan monohydrate had elevated plasma glucose levels. The body weights of diabetic female and male rats were significantly reduced compared to the non-diabetic rats. The catalase activities in liver and kidney of diabetic male or female rats were significantly lower than in non-diabetic rats but the reduction was more pronounced in diabetic female rats. The liver lipid peroxidation, cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in the diabetic male or female than in the non-diabetic rats, but with no significant differences in the diabetic female or male rats. Data of the study indicate that sex differences do not significantly affect oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetes.
- ItemOpen AccessEffect of zinc deficiency on memory, oxidative stress and blood chemistry in rats(International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 2009) EBUEHI, O.A.T.The effect of zinc deficiency on memory function, oxidative stress and blood chemistry in rats was investigated. Forty-two male (65.0±2.78 g) albino Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into 3 groups, A, B and C. The 3 groups of rats were fed zinc deficient diet, zinc adequate diet and reference diet, respectively, and water ad libitum daily for 30 days. Body weight, feed and water intake of the rats were computed every day. A shuttle box was used for the short-term and long-term memory tests of these rats fed the respective diets. Two criteria were considered as behavioural test; these include latency in entering dark chamber and time spent in the light chamber before entering the dark chamber at days 2, 9, 16 and 23 after the first day of training using the shuttle box. After the memory testing was conducted, rats were sacrificed by decapitation, blood was taken and brain excised. Total brain protein, plasma creatinine, reduced glutathione (GSH) levels, specific activities of acetylcholinesterase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined. The control diet supported significantly (p<0.01) higher body weight gain, feed intake and water intake than zinc adequate diet. The zinc adequate rat spent the longest time in the light compartment, followed by the control rat. The specific activity of AchE of zinc adequate rats was significantly higher than rats fed zinc deficient and control diet. Brain specific activity of SOD and reduced GSH of zinc adequate rats were significantly lower as compared with zinc deficient or control diet fed rats. There was no significant difference in the activities of plasma AST, ALT and ALP, creatinine level of rats fed zinc deficient, zinc adequate and control diets. Data of the present study indicate the effectiveness of the zinc adequate diet in memory retention and alleviation of oxidative stress in rats.