The Influence of Sex and Ancestry on Three-Dimensional Palate Shape

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El Sergani, A.M.
Brandebura, S.
Padilla, C.
Butali, A.
Adeyemo, W.L.
Valencia-Ramirez, C.
Muneton, C.P.R.
Moreno, L.M.
Buxo, C.J.
Neiswanger, K.
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Wolters Kluwer
Modern human palate shape has been reported to vary by sex and ancestry, but limitations in the methods used to quantify shape and in population coverage have led to inconsistent findings. In the present study, the authors aim to characterize the effects of sex and ancestry on normal-range three-dimensional palate shape through landmark-based morphometrics. Three-dimensional digital dental casts were obtained and landmarked from 794 adults of European (n = 429), African (n = 295), and East Asian (n = 70) ancestry. Principal component analysis was conducted to identify patterns of shape variation present in our cohort, and canonical variates analysis was performed to test for shape differences between sexes and ancestries. Principal component analysis showed that 3 principal components, explaining 76.52% of variance, linked higher palatal vault with either a relative reduction in anteroposterior or mediolateral dimensions. Canonical variates analysis showed that males had wider and shorter palates with more posteriorly located maximum vault depth than females. Individuals of African ancestry, having higher vaults with more posteriorly located maximal depths, also had wider and shorter palates, whereas individuals of European ancestry had narrower and longer palates with more anteriorly located maximum vault depths. Individuals of East Asian ancestry showed the shallowest vaults. It was found that both sex and ancestry influence palate shape, suggesting a possible genetic component underlying this variation. Additionally, our findings indicate that vault height tends to co-vary with anteroposterior or mediolateral dimensions. Further investigation of these morphological patterns may shed light on possible links to common congenital anomalies such as orofacial clefting
Scholarly article
Sex , Ancestry , Influence , Palate shape , Research Subject Categories::ODONTOLOGY
EL-Sergani AM, Brandebura S, Padilla C, Butali A, Adeyemo WL, Valencia-Ramírez C, Muñeton CPR, Moreno LM, Buxó CJ, Neiswanger K, Shaffer JR, Marazita ML, Weinberg SM. The Influence of Sex and Ancestry on Three-Dimensional Palate Shape. Journal of Craniofacial Surgery 2021. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000007796.